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Parkinson’s Disease
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 473769, 8 pages
Review Article

Dyskinesias and Treatment with Pramipexole in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

1Michael Trimble Neuropsychiatry Research Group, University of Birmingham and BSMHFT, Birmingham, UK
2Department of Neuropsychiatry and Barberry National Centre for Mental Health, University of Birmingham and BSMHFT, 25 Vincent Drive, Birmingham B15 2FG, UK
3Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, UCL, Institute of Neurology, London WC1N 3BG, UK

Received 1 July 2011; Revised 30 October 2011; Accepted 14 November 2011

Academic Editor: Gilberto Fisone

Copyright © 2012 John C. P. Piedad and Andrea E. Cavanna. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Dopamine agonists such as pramipexole (PPX) have first been proposed as adjunctive treatment to levodopa (L-DOPA) for patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and then as a monotherapy alternative to alleviate dyskinesia. Treatment with PPX has overall been associated with improvement in parkinsonian symptoms. Although the majority of placebo-controlled studies demonstrated that dyskinesia was more prevalent in the PPX compared to the placebo groups, some studies did not detect any dyskinesia as a side effect of this medication. PPX was consistently associated with lower risk for developing dyskinesia compared to L-DOPA. Moreover, the presence of these symptoms in the placebo groups suggests involvement of non-PPX-related factors for developing dyskinesia. It is suggested that future research should aim at ascertaining whether cotherapy with L-DOPA, PPX dosage, and other patient characteristics are contributory factors for the development of PPX-related dyskinesia in patients with PD.