Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Parkinson’s Disease
Volume 2012, Article ID 591094, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/591094
Research Article

Adenosine A 𝟐 A Receptor Antagonists Do Not Disrupt Rodent Prepulse Inhibition: An Improved Side Effect Profile in the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease

Department of In Vivo Pharmacology, Neuroscience, Merck Research Laboratories, 2015 Galloping Hill Road, K-15-1600, Kenilworth, NJ 07033, USA

Received 29 July 2011; Accepted 9 September 2011

Academic Editor: Antonio Lucio Teixeira

Copyright © 2012 Carina J. Bleickardt et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. A. Gallagher, A. J. Lees, and A. Schrag, “What are the most important nonmotor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease and are we missing them?” Movement Disorders, vol. 25, no. 15, pp. 2493–2500, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  2. J. G. Goldman, C. L. Vaughan, and C. G. Goetz, “An update expert opinion on management and research strategies in Parkinson's disease psychosis,” Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, vol. 12, no. 13, pp. 2009–2024, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  3. G. Fénelon, F. Mahieux, R. Huon, and M. Ziégler, “Hallucinations in parkinson's disease. Prevalence, phenomenology and risk factors,” Brain, vol. 123, no. 4, pp. 733–745, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. Barnes and A. S. David, “Visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: a review and phenomenological survey,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 727–733, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. Ecker, A. Unrath, J. Kassubek, and M. Sabolek, “Dopamine agonists and their risk to induce psychotic episodes in Parkinson's disease: a case-control study,” BioMed Central Neurology, vol. 9, no. 23, pp. 1–6, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  6. C. G. Goetz, C. M. Tanner, and H. L. Klawans, “Pharmacology of hallucinations induced by long-term drug therapy,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 139, no. 4, pp. 494–497, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Papapetropoulos and D. C. Mash, “Psychotic symptoms in Parkinson's disease: from description to etiology,” Journal of Neurology, vol. 252, no. 7, pp. 753–764, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  8. L. B. Zahodne and H. H. Fernandez, “Pathophysiology and treatment of psychosis in Parkinson's disease: a review,” Drugs and Aging, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 665–682, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. B. Zahodne and H. H. Fernandez, “Parkinson's psychosis,” Current Treatment Options in Neurology, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 200–211, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  10. N. R. Swerdlow, N. Taaid, J. L. Oostwegel, E. Randolph, and M. A. Geyer, “Towards a cross-species pharmacology of sensorimotor gating: effects of amantadine, bromocriptine, pergolide and ropinirole on prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle in rats,” Behavioural Pharmacology, vol. 9, no. 5-6, pp. 389–396, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Weber, W. L. Chang, M. Breier, D. Ko, and N. R. Swerdlow, “Heritable strain differences in sensitivity to the startle gating-disruptive effects of D2 but not D3 receptor stimulation,” Behavioural Pharmacology, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 786–795, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. N. R. Swerdlow, S. A. Lelham, A. N. Sutherland Owens, W. L. Chang, S. D. Sassen, and J. A. Talledo, “Pramipexole effects on startle gating in rats and normal men,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 205, no. 4, pp. 689–698, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. S. J. Augood and P. C. Emson, “Adenosine A2A receptor mRNA is expressed by enkephalin cells but not by somatostatin cells in rat striatum: a co-expression study,” Molecular Brain Research, vol. 22, no. 1–4, pp. 204–210, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. B. D. Hettinger, A. Lee, J. Linden, and D. L. Rosin, “Ultrastructural localization of adenosine A2A receptors suggests multiple cellular sites for modulation of GABAergic neurons in rat striatum,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 431, no. 3, pp. 331–346, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. A. Hauser, M. Cantillon, E. Pourcher et al., “Preladenant in patients with Parkinson's disease and motor fluctuations: a phase 2, double-blind, randomised trial,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 221–229, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. S. Shiozaki, S. Ichikawa, J. Nakamura, S. Kitamura, K. Yamada, and Y. Kuwana, “Actions of adenosine A2A receptor antagonist KW-6002 on drug-induced catalepsy and hypokinesia caused by reserpine or MPTP,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 147, no. 1, pp. 90–95, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. A. Hodgson, R. Bertorelli, G. B. Varty et al., “Characterization of the potent and highly selective A2A receptor antagonists preladenant and SCH 412348 [7-[2-[4-2,4-difluorophenyl]-1- piperazinyl]ethyl]-2-(2-furanyl)-7hpyrazolo[ 4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c] pyrimidin-5-amine in rodent models of movement disorders and depression,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 330, no. 1, pp. 294–303, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  18. M. A. Schwarzschild, L. Agnati, K. Fuxe, J. F. Chen, and M. Morelli, “Targeting adenosine A2A receptors in Parkinson's disease,” Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 647–654, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. M. Morelli, T. Di Paolo, J. Wardas, F. Calon, D. Xiao, and M. A. Schwarzschild, “Role of adenosine A2A receptors in parkinsonian motor impairment and l-DOPA-induced motor complications,” Progress in Neurobiology, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 293–309, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  20. W. L. Chang, N. R. Swerdlow, M. R. Breier, N. Thangaraj, and M. Weber, “Parametric approaches towards understanding the effects of the preferential D3 receptor agonist pramipexole on prepulse inhibition in rats,” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 473–478, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  21. M. Etminan, S. Gill, and A. Samii, “Comparison of the risk of adverse events with pramipexole and ropinirole in patients with Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis,” Drug Safety, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 439–444, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. C. Stoner, M. M. Dahmen, M. Makos, J. W. Lea, L. J. Carver, and R. S. Rasu, “An exploratory retrospective evaluation of ropinirole-associated psychotic symptoms in an outpatient population treated for restless legs syndrome or Parkinson's disease,” The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 1426–1432, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  23. M. C. Coldwell, I. Boyfield, T. Brown, J. J. Hagan, and D. N. Middlemiss, “Comparison of the functional potencies of ropinirole and other dopamine receptor agonists at human D2(long), D3 and D4.4 receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 127, no. 7, pp. 1696–1702, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  24. S. H. Fox, N. P. Visanji, T. H. Johnston, J. Gomez-Ramirez, V. Voon, and J. M. Brotchie, “Dopamine receptor agonists and levodopa and inducing psychosis-like behavior in the MPTP primate model of Parkinson disease,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 63, no. 9, pp. 1343–1344, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. Ferré, C. Quiroz, A. S. Woods et al., “An update on adenosine A2A-dopamine D2receptor interactions: implications for the function of G protein-coupled receptors,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 14, no. 15, pp. 1468–1474, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. W. Stevenson and A. Gratton, “Role of basolateral amygdala dopamine in modulating prepulse inhibition and latent inhibition in the rat,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 176, no. 2, pp. 139–145, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. K. Fuxe, S. Ferré, M. Canals et al., “Adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 heteromeric receptor complexes and their function,” Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, vol. 26, no. 2-3, pp. 209–219, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  28. M. Koch and W. Hauber, “Regulation of sensorimotor gating by interactions of dopamine and adenosine in the rat,” Behavioural Pharmacology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 23–29, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. Fénelon, “Psychosis in Parkinson's disease: phenomenology, frequency, risk factors, and current understanding of pathophysiologic mechanisms,” CNS Spectrums, vol. 13, no. 3, supplement 4, pp. 18–25, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. C. H. Good, A. F. Hoffman, B. J. Hoffer et al., “Impaired nigrostriatal function precedes behavioral deficits in a genetic mitochondrial model of Parkinson's disease,” The Faseb Journal, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 1333–1344, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  31. D. Marcellino, E. Lindqvist, M. Schneider et al., “Chronic A2A antagonist treatment alleviates parkinsonian locomotor deficiency in MitoPark mice,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 460–466, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus