Parkinson’s Disease / 2013 / Article / Tab 5

Clinical Study

Predictors of Cognitive Decline in the Early Stages of Parkinson's Disease: A Brief Cognitive Assessment Longitudinal Study

Table 5

Baseline comparisons regarding the MMSE and FAB changes from to .

Predictor variables ( )MMSE changeFAB change
Mean variation Mean variation

Gender
 Male−0.21 (1.75)0.871 −0.21 (3.05)0.244
 Female 0.69 (1.93) 0.39 (2.30)
Motor subtype
 Tremor 0.00 (1.46)0.842 0.50 (2.34)0.186
 Nontremor −0.22 (2.26) −0.30 (2.98)
Hallucinations
 Yes 0.00 (4.40) 0.9650.50 (1.43)0.680
 No−0.10 (1.67)0.12 (2.54)
Frontal dysfunction
 Yes−0.88 (2.27)0.002** 0.46 (2.85)0.474
 No 0.49 (1.17)−0.09 (2.51)
Global cognitive dysfunction
 Yes0.00 (3.69)0.980−0.83 (2.04)0.207
 No −0.11 (1.58) 0.25 (2.70)
Age
 72 0.09 (2.27)0.239 0.41 (2.84)0.296
 ≤72−0.31 (1.23)−0.21 (2.47)
Age of onset
 69 0.18 (2.21)0.072 0.52 (2.84)0.247
 ≤69−0.43 (1.23)−0.28 (2.39)
Duration
 2−0.58 (1.88)0.080−0.48 (2.74)0.077
 ≤2 0.40 (1.69) 0.80 (2.43)
Education
 3−0.46 (1.62)0.048*−0.03 (2.57)0.723
 ≤3 0.38 (2.04) 0.31 (2.83)
HY stage
 1−0.95 (1.76)0.914−0.28 (2.57)0.051
 1−0.10 (1.91) 0.95 (2.67)
DED
 395 0.04 (1.40)0.819 0.68 (2.39)0.101
 ≤395−0.21 (2.16)−0.36 (2.83)
UPDRS total
 >16 −0.03 (1.31)0.507−0.15 (2.86)0.160
 ≤16 −0.18 (1.31) 0.43 (2.42)
Speech
 >0−0.10 (2.19)0.774−0.55 (2.96)0.022*
 0−0.10 (1.49) 0.78 (2.20)
Tremor
 >4−0.37 (2.57) 0.4710.37 (2.64)0.671
 ≤4 0.02 (1.42)0.05 (2.68)
Rigidity
 >1−0.21 (2.13)0.586−0.54 (2.49)0.020*
 ≤1 0.00 (0.16) 0.73 (2.68)
Bradykinesia
 >7−0.13 (2.19)0.978−0.03 (2.66)0.350
 ≤7 −0.06 (1.46) 0.32 (2.68)
Gait/posture
 >1−0.25 (1.70)0.471−0.28 (3.03)0.111
 ≤1 0.07 (2.00) 0.53 (2.23)

Values are mean standard deviation. value is significance for Mann-Whitney tests.

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