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Parkinson’s Disease
Volume 2015, Article ID 108179, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/108179
Research Article

Pentoxifylline Neuroprotective Effects Are Possibly Related to Its Anti-Inflammatory and TNF-Alpha Inhibitory Properties, in the 6-OHDA Model of Parkinson’s Disease

1Faculty of Medicine of the Federal University of Ceará, Rua Coronel Nunes de Melo 1127, 60430-270 Fortaleza, CE, Brazil
2Faculty of Medicine Estácio of Juazeiro do Norte, Avenida Tenente Raimundo Rocha 515, 63048-080 Juazeiro do Norte, CE, Brazil

Received 2 May 2015; Revised 20 August 2015; Accepted 27 August 2015

Academic Editor: Ivan Bodis-Wollner

Copyright © 2015 Kelly Rose Tavares Neves et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor with anti-TNF-alpha activity, associated with its anti-inflammatory action. Considering Parkinson’s disease (PD) as a neuroinflammatory disorder, the objectives were to evaluate PTX neuroprotective properties, in a model of PD. Male Wistar rats, divided into sham-operated (SO), untreated 6-OHDA, and 6-OHDA treated with PTX (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) groups, received a unilateral 6-OHDA injection, except the SO group administered with saline. Treatments started 24 h after surgery and continued for 15 days when the animals were submitted to apomorphine-induced rotations, open field, and forced swimming tests. At the next day, they were euthanized and their striata processed for neurochemical (DA and DOPAC determinations), histological, and immunohistochemical (Fluoro-Jade, TH, DAT, OX-42, TNF-alpha, COX-2, and iNOS) studies. PTX reversed the behavioral changes observed in the untreated 6-OHDA animals. Furthermore, PTX partially reversed the decrease in DA contents and improved neuronal viability. In addition, decreases in immunostaining for TH and dopamine transporter (DAT) were reversed. The untreated 6-OHDA group showed intense OX-42, TNF-alpha, COX-2, and iNOS immunoreactivities, which were attenuated by PTX. In conclusion, we demonstrated a neuroprotective effect of PTX, possibly related to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions, indicating its potential as an adjunct treatment for PD.