Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Parkinson’s Disease
Volume 2015, Article ID 167038, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/167038
Research Article

Clinical Utility of Skin Biopsy in Differentiating between Parkinson’s Disease and Multiple System Atrophy

1Department of Neurology, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, 2-1-1 Higashi-Tsukurimichi, Aomori 030-8553, Japan
2Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu-cho, Hirosaki 306-8562, Japan
3Diabetes Center, Ohta Nishinouchi Hospital, 2-5-20 Nishinouchi, Koriyama 963-8558, Japan
4Department of Neurophysiology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu-cho, Hirosaki 306-8562, Japan
5Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu-cho, Hirosaki 306-8562, Japan

Received 15 January 2015; Revised 24 March 2015; Accepted 24 March 2015

Academic Editor: Heinz Reichmann

Copyright © 2015 Rie Haga et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. K. Wenning, F. Tison, Y. Ben Shlomo, S. E. Daniel, and N. P. Quinn, “Multiple system atrophy: a review of 203 pathologically proven cases,” Movement Disorders, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 133–147, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. Nicoletti, R. Lodi, F. Condino et al., “Apparent diffusion coefficient measurements of the middle cerebellar peduncle differentiate the Parkinson variant of MSA from Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy,” Brain, vol. 129, no. 10, pp. 2679–2687, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Braune, “The role of cardiac metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes,” Clinical Autonomic Research, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 351–355, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. Taki, K. Nakajima, E.-H. Hwang et al., “Peripheral sympathetic dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease without autonomic failure is heart selective and disease specific,” European Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 566–573, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Orimo, T. Kanazawa, A. Nakamura et al., “Degeneration of cardiac sympathetic nerve can occur in multiple system atrophy,” Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 81–86, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Y. Miki, M. Tomiyama, T. Ueno et al., “Clinical availability of skin biopsy in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 469, no. 3, pp. 357–359, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Ikemura, Y. Saito, R. Sengoku et al., “Lewy body pathology involves cutaneous nerves,” Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology, vol. 67, no. 10, pp. 945–953, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. N. Wang, C. H. Gibbons, J. Lafo, and B. S. R. Freeman, “α-synuclein in cutaneous autonomic nerves,” Neurology, vol. 81, no. 18, pp. 1604–1610, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Nolano, V. Provitera, A. Estraneo et al., “Sensory deficit in Parkinson's disease: evidence of a cutaneous denervation,” Brain, vol. 131, no. 7, pp. 1903–1911, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. Wakabayashi, M. Yoshimoto, S. Tsuji, and H. Takahashi, “Alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity in glial cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 249, no. 2-3, pp. 180–182, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. Dabby, R. Djaldetti, M. Shahmurov et al., “Skin biopsy for assessment of autonomic denervation in Parkinson's disease,” Journal of Neural Transmission, vol. 113, no. 9, pp. 1169–1176, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. Novak, N. B. Marya, K. Whren, and J. Bhawan, “Dermal sheet preparations in the evaluation of dermal innervation in Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy,” Journal of Cutaneous Pathology, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 296–301, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. G. Lauria, D. R. Cornblath, O. Johansson et al., “EFNS guidelines on the use of skin biopsy in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy,” European Journal of Neurology, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 747–758, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. J. Hughes, S. E. Daniel, L. Kilford, and A. J. Lees, “Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease: a clinico-pathological study of 100 cases,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 181–184, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Gilman, G. K. Wenning, P. A. Low et al., “Second consensus statement on the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy,” Neurology, vol. 71, no. 9, pp. 670–676, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Kimura, Electrodiagnosis in Diseases of Nerve and Muscle: Principles and Practice, F.A. Davis, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1983.
  17. W. R. Kennedy, G. Wendelschafer-Crabb, and T. Johnson, “Quantitation of epidermal nerves in diabetic neuropathy,” Neurology, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 1042–1048, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. Doppler, S. Ebert, N. Üçeyler et al., “Cutaneous neuropathy in Parkinson’s disease: a window into brain pathology,” Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 99–109, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. K. L. Newell, P. Boyer, E. Gomez-Tortosa et al., “Alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity is present in axonal swellings in neuroaxonal dystrophy and acute traumatic brain injury,” Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol. 58, no. 12, pp. 1263–1268, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. Orimo, T. Uchihara, A. Nakamura et al., “Axonal α-synuclein aggregates herald centripetal degeneration of cardiac sympathetic nerve in Parkinson's disease,” Brain, vol. 131, no. 3, pp. 642–650, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. V. Donadio, P. Cortelli, M. Elam et al., “Autonomic innervation in multiple system atrophy and pure autonomic failure,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 81, no. 12, pp. 1327–1335, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. Shishido, M. Ikemura, T. Obi et al., “alpha-Synuclein accumulation in skin nerve fibers revealed by skin biopsy in pure autonomic failure,” Neurology, vol. 74, no. 7, pp. 608–610, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. Kanda, H. Tsukagoshi, M. Oda, K. Miyamoto, and H. Tanabe, “Changes of unmyelinated nerve fibers in sural nerve in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy,” Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 145–154, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. Toth, M. S. Brown, S. Furtado, O. Suchowersky, and D. Zochodne, “Neuropathy as a potential complication of levodopa use in Parkinson's disease,” Movement Disorders, vol. 23, no. 13, pp. 1850–1859, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. Toth, K. Breithaupt, S. Ge et al., “Levodopa, methylmalonic acid, and neuropathy in idiopathic Parkinson disease,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 28–36, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. Ceravolo, G. Cossu, M. Bandettini di Poggio et al., “Neuropathy and levodopa in Parkinson's disease: evidence from a multicenter study,” Movement Disorders, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 1391–1397, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Bloch, A. Probst, H. Bissig, H. Adams, and M. Tolnay, “Alpha-synuclein pathology of the spinal and peripheral autonomic nervous system in neurologically unimpaired elderly subjects,” Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 284–295, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. K. del Tredici and H. Braak, “Spinal cord lesions in sporadic Parkinson's disease,” Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 124, no. 5, pp. 643–664, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus