Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Parkinson’s Disease
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 324843, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/324843
Research Article

Iron Accumulation Is Not Homogenous among Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

1Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
2Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
3Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
4Center for Nutrition, Healthy Lifestyles and Disease Prevention, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA

Received 29 November 2014; Revised 23 February 2015; Accepted 12 March 2015

Academic Editor: Nobutaka Hattori

Copyright © 2015 Khashayar Dashtipour et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Lhermitte, W. M. Kraus, and M. A. Mc Alpine, “On the occurrence of abnormal deposits of iron in the brain in Parkinsonism with special reference to its localization,” The Journal of Neurology and Psychopathology, vol. 5, no. 19, pp. 195–208, 1924. View at Google Scholar
  2. E. Sofic, W. Paulus, K. Jellinger, P. Riederer, and M. B. H. Youdim, “Selective increase of iron in substantia nigra zona compacta of Parkinsonian brains,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 978–982, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. Jellinger, W. Paulus, I. Grundke-Iqbal, P. Riederer, and M. B. H. Youdim, “Brain iron and ferritin in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases,” Journal of Neural Transmission: Parkinson's Disease and Dementia Section, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 327–340, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. T. Dexter, F. R. Wells, A. J. Lees et al., “Increased nigral iron content and alterations in other metal ions occurring in brain in Parkinson's disease,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1830–1836, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. E. Sofic, P. Riederer, H. Heinsen et al., “Increased iron (III) and total iron content in post mortem substantia nigra of parkinsonian brain,” Journal of Neural Transmission, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 199–205, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. B. P. Drayer, P. Burger, R. Darwin, S. Riederer, R. Herfkens, and G. A. Johnson, “Magnetic resonance imaging of brain iron,” The American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 373–380, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. B. H. Youdim and D. Ben-Shachar, “The neurotoxic component in Parkinson’s disease may involve iron-melanin interaction and lipid peroxidation in the substantia nigra,” in Early Markers in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's Diseases, P. Dostert, P. Riederer, M. Strolin-Benedetti, and R. Roncucci, Eds., vol. 1 of New Vistas in Drug Research, pp. 111–122, Springer, Vienna, Austria, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. D. Ben-Shachar, G. Eshel, J. P. M. Finberg, and M. B. H. Youdim, “The iron chelator desferrioxamine (Desferal) retards 6-hydroxydopamine-induced degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 1441–1444, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. Ben-Shachar and M. B. H. Youdim, “Intranigral iron injection induces behavioral and biochemical ‘Parkinsonism’ in rats,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 2133–2135, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. B. H. Youdim, D. Ben-Shachar, and P. Riederer, “The possible role of iron in the etiopathology of Parkinson's disease,” Movement Disorders, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Friedman, J. Galazka-Friedman, and D. Koziorowski, “Iron as a cause of Parkinson disease—a myth or a well established hypothesis?” Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. S212–S214, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. Ryvlin, E. Broussolle, H. Piollet, F. Viallet, Y. Khalfallah, and G. Chazot, “Magnetic resonance imaging evidence of decreased putamenal iron content in idiopathic Parkinson's disease,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 583–588, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. G. Bartzokis, J. L. Cummings, C. H. Markham et al., “MRI evaluation of brain iron in earlier- and later-onset Parkinson's disease and normal subjects,” Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 213–222, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Baudrexel, L. Nürnberger, U. Rüb et al., “Quantitative mapping of T1 and T2 discloses nigral and brainstem pathology in early Parkinson's disease,” NeuroImage, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 512–520, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. M. Gorell, R. J. Ordidge, G. G. Brown, J.-C. Deniau, N. M. Buderer, and J. A. Helpern, “Increased iron-related MRI contrast in the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease,” Neurology, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 1138–1143, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. W. R. W. Martin, M. Wieler, and M. Gee, “Midbrain iron content in early Parkinson disease: a potential biomarker of disease status,” Neurology, vol. 70, no. 16, part 2, pp. 1411–1417, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Michaeli, G. Öz, D. J. Sorce et al., “Assessment of brain iron and neuronal integrity in patients with Parkinson's disease using novel MRI contrasts,” Movement Disorders, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 334–340, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. Péran, A. Cherubini, F. Assogna et al., “Magnetic resonance imaging markers of Parkinson's disease nigrostriatal signature,” Brain, vol. 133, no. 11, pp. 3423–3433, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. Du, M. M. Lewis, M. Styner et al., “Combined R2 and diffusion tensor imaging changes in the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease,” Movement Disorders, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1627–1632, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. W. Zhang, S.-G. Sun, Y.-H. Jiang, X. Qiao, X. Sun, and Y. Wu, “Determination of brain iron content in patients with Parkinson's disease using magnetic susceptibility imaging,” Neuroscience Bulletin, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 353–360, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Wang et al., “Characterizing iron deposition in Parkinson's disease using susceptibility-weighted imaging: an in vivo MR study,” Brain Research, vol. 1330, pp. 124–130, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. Rossi, H. Ruottinen, I. Elovaara et al., “Brain iron deposition and sequence characteristics in parkinsonism: comparison of SWI, T2 maps, T2-weighted-, and FLAIR-SPACE,” Investigative Radiology, vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 795–802, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. E. Rossi, H. Ruottinen, T. Saunamäki, I. Elovaara, and P. Dastidar, “Imaging brain iron and diffusion patterns: a follow-up study of Parkinson's disease in the initial stages,” Academic Radiology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 64–71, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. Haller, S. Badoud, D. Nguyen et al., “Differentiation between Parkinson disease and other forms of Parkinsonism using support vector machine analysis of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI): initial results,” European Radiology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 12–19, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. Ayton and P. Lei, “Nigral iron elevation is an invariable feature of Parkinson's disease and is a sufficient cause of neurodegeneration,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 581256, 9 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. J. Hughes, S. E. Daniel, L. Kilford, and A. J. Lees, “Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease: a clinico-pathological study of 100 cases,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 181–184, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. Talairach and P. Tournoux, Co-Planar Stereotaxic Atlas of the Human Brain: 3-Dimensional Proportional System: an Approach to Cerebral Imaging, Thieme Medical Publishers, New York, NY, USA, 1988.