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Parkinson’s Disease
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 816404, 6 pages
Clinical Study

Mindfulness Training among Individuals with Parkinson’s Disease: Neurobehavioral Effects

1University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium
2Department of Neurology, Antwerp University Hospital, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem, Belgium
3Mercy Health Hauenstein Neurosciences, 220 Cherry Street, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, USA
4Michigan State University, College of Human Medicine, Department of Translational Science and Molecular Medicine, 333 Bostwick Avenue NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, USA
5Lab for Clinical and Integrative Neuroscience, School for Behavioral and Brain Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, 1966 Inwood Road, Dallas, TX 75235, USA
6Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Carolinas Rehabilitation, 1100 Blythe Boulevard, Charlotte, NC 28203, USA
7icoMetrix, Tervuursesteenweg 244, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
8Department of Radiology, Antwerp University Hospital, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem, Belgium
9Faculty of Physical Education and Physical Therapy, Center for Neurosciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels, Belgium
10Department of Clinical and Experimental Neurolinguistics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
11Department of Neurology and Memory Clinic, Ziekenhuis Netwerk Antwerpen, Lindendreef 1, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium
12Born Bunge Institute, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium

Received 30 September 2014; Revised 30 March 2015; Accepted 6 April 2015

Academic Editor: Carlo Colosimo

Copyright © 2015 Barbara Pickut et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. To investigate possible neurobehavioral changes secondary to a mindfulness based intervention (MBI) training for individuals living with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Background. In the context of complementary medicine, MBIs are increasingly being used for stress reduction and in patient populations coping with chronic illness. The use of alternative and complementary medicine may be higher in patients with chronic conditions such as PD. However, behavioral effects of mindfulness training in PD have not yet been reported in the literature and this points to an unmet need and warrants further examination. Methods. A total of 27 out of 30 PD patients completed a randomized controlled longitudinal trial. Questionnaires and the UPDRS I–IV were obtained at baseline and 8-week follow-up. Results. Significant changes after the MBI were found including a 5.5 point decrease on the UPDRS motor score, an increase of 0.79 points on Parkinson’s disease questionnaire (PDQ-39) pain item, and a 3.15 point increase in the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire observe facet. Conclusions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative analysis of neurobehavioral effects of MBI in PD.