Research Article

Clinical and Epidemiological Factors Associated with Mortality in Parkinson’s Disease in a Brazilian Cohort

Table 4

Association between baseline characteristics and mortality, expressed as mortality hazard ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI).

Univariate modelsAdjusted model
HR (95% CI) valueHR (95% CI) value

Age of onset, per year increase1.06 (1.03–1.09)<0.0011.06 (1.02–1.10)0.004
Age at onset <60 years0.32 (0.16–0.64)0.001
Age at first visit, per year increase1.05 (1.02–1.08)0.001
Disease duration0.87 (0.74–1.02)0.0930.86 (0.70–1.07)NS
Female11.2 (0.89–140.9)0.06276.5 (2.03–2886)0.019
Race2.11 (1.00–4.43)0.0493.41 (1.21–9.58)0.021
Subtype PIGD0.82 (0.43–1.56)NS0.83 (0.22–3.17)NS
 Mixed0.67 (0.22–2.02)NS1.31 (0.47–3.67)NS
Dementia1.99 (1.01–3.92)0.0461.8 (0.80–4.01)NS
Depression1.00 (0.52–1.94)NS0.88 (0.36–2.14)NS
Hoehn&Yahr0.90 (0.62–1.32)NS1.05 (0.53–2.06)NS
ADL1.00 (0.99–1.01)NS1.00 (0.98–1.02)NS
Any risk factor0.60 (0.33–1.12)NS0.37 (0.16–0.84)0.018
Any major comorbidity1.00 (0.54–1.89)NS1.62 (0.63–4.16)NS

Note. Univariate models include only one variable at a time. The adjusted model included all listed covariates simultaneously. Indicator variable for age of onset lower than 60 years and age of first visit are not included in the adjusted model because of collinearity. Female: time-varying component estimated because of violation of proportional hazards assumption. Race: nonwhites as compared to whites. Subtype: reference group: tremor. PIGD: postural instability-gait disorder subtype. ADL: activities of daily living. NS: nonstatistically significant, .