Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Parkinson’s Disease
Volume 2017, Article ID 1902708, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1902708
Clinical Study

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Chinese Medicine on Nonmotor Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease

1School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong
2Mr. & Mrs. Ko Chi Ming Centre for Parkinson’s Disease Research, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong
3Institutes of Integrative Medicine, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Sha Tin, Hong Kong
4State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau
5Department of Mathematics, Statistics Research & Consultancy Centre, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Correspondence should be addressed to Vincent Mok; kh.ude.khuc@komtcv and Min Li; kh.ude.ubkh@nimil

Received 23 January 2017; Accepted 28 February 2017; Published 23 May 2017

Academic Editor: Hélio Teive

Copyright © 2017 Ka-Kit Chua et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. M. de Lau and M. M. Breteler, “Epidemiology of Parkinson's disease,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 525–535, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. T. Simuni and K. Sethi, “Nonmotor manifestations of Parkinson's disease,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 64, supplement 2, pp. S65–S80, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. Massano and K. P. Bhatia, “Clinical approach to Parkinson's disease: features, diagnosis, and principles of management,” Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, vol. 2, no. 6, Article ID a008870, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. R. Chaudhuri, P. Odin, A. Antonini, and P. Martinez-Martin, “Parkinsons disease: the non-motor issues,” Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 717–723, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. W. J. Weiner, “Levodopa—toxic or neuroprotective?” Nature Clinical Practice Neurology, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 518-519, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. P. R. Rajendran, R. E. Thompson, and S. G. Reich, “The use of alternative therapies by patients with Parkinson's disease,” Neurology, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 790–794, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. Leung, “Development of traditional Chinese medicine in Hong Kong and its implications for orthopaedic surgery,” Hong Kong Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. A.-P. Lu, H.-W. Jia, C. Xiao, and Q.-P. Lu, “Theory of traditional chinese medicine and therapeutic method of diseases,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 10, no. 13, pp. 1854–1856, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Y. Wang, X.-M. Lin, and G.-Q. Zheng, “Traditional Chinese medicine for Parkinson's disease in china and beyond,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 385–388, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. W.-Y. Jiang, “Therapeutic wisdom in traditional Chinese medicine: a perspective from modern science,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 558–563, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. W. C. Moore, D. A. Meyers, and S. E. Wenzel, “Identification of asthma phenotypes using cluster analysis in the severe asthma research program,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 181, no. 4, pp. 315–323, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. V. Chung, L. Liu, Z. Bian et al., “Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines for idiopathic Parkinson's disease: a systematic review,” Movement Disorders, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1709–1715, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Li, W. F. Kum, S. S. K. Durairajan et al., “Treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease with traditional chinese herbal medicine: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Pilot Clinical Study,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 724353, 8 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J.-H. Lu, J.-Q. Tan, S. S. K. Durairajan et al., “Erratum to: Lu J-H, Tan J-Q, Durairajan SSK, Liu L-F, Zhang Z-H, Ma L, et al. Isorhynchophylline, a natural alkaloid, promotes the degradation of a-synuclein in neuronal cells via inducing autophagy. Autophagy 2012; 8:98-108 (Autophagy (2012) 8, 5 (864-866)),” Autophagy, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 864–866, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. X. Song, J. H. Lu, L. F. Liu et al., “HMGB1 is involved in autophagy inhibition caused by SNCA/α-synuclein overexpression: a process modulated by the natural autophagy inducer corynoxine B,” Autophagy, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 144–154, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L.-L. Chen, J.-X. Song, J.-H. Lu et al., “Corynoxine, a natural autophagy enhancer, promotes the clearance of alpha-synuclein via Akt/mTOR pathway,” Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 380–387, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K.-K. Chua and M. Li, “Occurrence of spleen qi deficiency as defined by chinese medicine in parkinson disease,” Journal of Traditional Chinese Medical Sciences, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. A. J. Hughes, S. E. Daniel, L. Kilford, and A. J. Lees, “Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease: a clinico-pathological study of 100 cases,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 181–184, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. The Guidance for Clinical Research of New Chinese Herbal Medicine. Chinese Medical Scientific Publishers, Medical Scientific Publishers, Beijing, China, 2002.
  20. Xu. Tang, B. L. Q. Dong, R. Gao, and S. J. Guan, “Exploration into the Preparation of Placebos Used in Chinese Medicinal Clinical Trial,” Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 656–658, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  21. C. G. Goetz, B. C. Tilley, S. R. Shaftman et al., “Movement disorder society-sponsored revision of the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (MDS-UPDRS): scale presentation and clinimetric testing results,” Movement Disorders, vol. 23, no. 15, pp. 2129–2170, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. R. Chaudhuri, P. Martinez-Martin, A. H. V. Schapira et al., “International multicenter pilot study of the first comprehensive self-completed nonmotor symptoms questionnaire for Parkinson's disease: the NMSQuest study,” Movement Disorders, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 916–923, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. Zheng, “Therapeutic History of Parkinson's Disease in Chinese Medical Treatises,” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1223–1230, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. J. W. Jung, N. Y. Ahn, H. R. Oh et al., “Anxiolytic effects of the aqueous extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 108, no. 2, pp. 193–197, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J.-H. Lee, Y. J. Lee, J.-K. Shin et al., “Effects of triterpenoids from Poria cocos Wolf on the serotonin type 3A receptor-mediated ion current in Xenopus oocytes,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 615, no. 1–3, pp. 27–32, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. N. Young, “How to increase serotonin in the human brain without drugs,” Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 394–399, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  27. M. Berger, J. A. Gray, and B. L. Roth, “The expanded biology of serotonin,” Annual Review of Medicine, vol. 60, pp. 355–366, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. S. H. Fox, R. Chuang, and J. M. Brotchie, “Serotonin and Parkinson's disease: on movement, mood, and madness,” Movement Disorders, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 1255–1266, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. Nuzzo, “Scientific method: statistical errors,” Nature, vol. 506, no. 7487, pp. 150–152, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. P. Skapinakis, E. Bakola, G. Salanti, G. Lewis, A. P. Kyritsis, and V. Mavreas, “Efficacy and acceptability of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for the treatment of depression in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” BMC Neurology, vol. 10, article 49, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Valadas, M. Coelho, T. Mestre et al., “What motivates Parkinson's disease patients to enter clinical trials?” Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 667–671, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus