Table 1: Baseline characteristics.

ParameterJLT group
Control group
p value

Age (years)63.48 ± 9.7263.31 ± 8.200.919
Gender (M/F)35/2138/170.464
Disease duration (years)6.42 ± 4.155.42 ± 3.770.096
Duration of Levodopa treatment (years)5.17 ± 4.423.94 ± 3.130.187
Total Levodopa dosage (mg/day)459.82 ± 350.90374.55 ± 257.460.148
Medication use
 Levodopa, n (%)53 (94.6)50 (90.9)0.447
 Dopaminergic agonist, n (%)23 (41.1)17 (30.9)0.265
 Anticholinergic, n (%)18 (32.1)21 (38.2)0.505
 COMT inhibitor, n (%)14 (25.0)4 (7.3)0.011
 MAO-B inhibitor, n (%)17 (30.4)12 (21.8)0.306
 Amantadine, n (%)5 (8.9)4 (7.3)0.749
 Senna, n (%)5 (8.9)6 (10.9)0.727
 Lactulose, n (%)4 (7.1)3 (5.5)0.714
Baseline scores
 H&Y score2.07 ± 0.602.02 ± 0.590.639
 NMSS total65.52 ± 49.7747.42 ± 35.700.030
 MDS-UPDRS part I10.21 ± 7.068.76 ± 6.630.267
 MDS-UPDRS part II14.71 ± 7.9511.58 ± 7.510.035
 MDS-UPDRS part III33.21 ± 15.3933.27 ± 14.270.983
 MDS-UPDRS part IV4.00 ± 4.452.78 ± 3.700.120

Data are expressed as mean ± S.D; p value was comparing the difference between two groups in baseline; treatment group compared with placebo group by independent t-test; treatment group compared with placebo group by Chi-square test with continuity correction.