Parkinson’s Disease / 2019 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

A 10-Year Follow-Up of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Parkinson’s Disease

Table 2

Longitudinal change in relation to time and standardized intraindividual association with ESS.

Effect of timeEffect on ESS
Intercept (SE)aSlope (SE)bBeta (SE)c

Daily levodopa equivalent dose (total, mg)d994.2 (83.86)56.36 (16.62)−0.14 (0.099)
Daily levodopa equivalent dose (levodopa, mg)e749.3 (67.28)46.52 (13.80)−0.17 (0.100)
Daily levodopa equivalent dose (dopamine agonists, mg)f97.01 (16.50)−5.47 (2.161)0.06 (0.117)
UPDRS I, total mentation, behavior, and mood (0–16)g,h2.88 (0.301)0.09 (0.032)0.16 (0.081)
UPDRS III, total motor score (0–108)g,h16.05 (1.438)1.31 (0.204)−0.02 (0.095)
UPDRS III axial/postural/gait score (0–28)g,h4.69 (0.390)0.59 (0.114)0.18 (0.079)
UPDRS III resting tremor score (0–20)g,h1.56 (0.310)−0.06 (0.031)0.01 (0.082)
UPDRS III action/postural tremor score (0–8)g,h0.12 (0.045)0.00 (0.008)0.02 (0.125)
UPDRS III rigidity score (0–20)g,h2.51 (0.509)0.08 (0.053)−0.08 (0.079)
UPDRS III limb bradykinesia score (0–32)g,h7.05 (0.649)0.79 (0.111)−0.08 (0.091)
UPDRS IV, dyskinesia score (0–13)g,h1.03 (0.251)0.13 (0.049)−0.02 (0.083)
UPDRS IV, fluctuation score (0–7)g,h1.78 (0.170)0.03 (0.027)0.11 (0.065)
ESS daytime sleepiness score (0–24)h9.92 (0.839)−0.08 (0.137)
PSQI sleep quality score (0–21)h6.83 (0.581)0.07 (0.086)0.226 (0.079)
MADRS-S depression score (0–54)h,j10.84 (1.355)0.14 (0.123)0.178 (0.069)
HADS anxiety score (0–21)h,j5.42 (0.758)0.13 (0.093)0.249 (0.077)
HADS depression score (0–21)h,j4.95 (0.615)0.17 (0.075)0.127 (0.068)
Fatigue (FACIT-F) score (0–52)i,j31.49 (1.663)−1.02 (0.322)0.108 (0.068)

; ; ; . aPredicted value on variable at baseline; bpredicted change in variable score per year; cstandardized intraindividual association between variable and ESS; dincluding all antiparkinsonian medications, derived according to Tomlinson et al. [24]; eincluding only levodopa (and associated enzyme inhibitors), derived according to Tomlinson et al. [24]; fincluding only dopamine agonists, derived according to Tomlinson et al. [24]; gas assessed during the “ON” phase; hhigh scores = more problems; ihigh scores = less problems; jfrom year 1. ESS, Epworth Sleepiness Scale; PD, Parkinson’s disease; UPDRS, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale; FACIT-F, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scale; SD, standard deviation; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; PSQI, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index profile; MADRS-S, Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale-Self.

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