Research Article

Impact of Gastrointestinal Symptoms on Health-Related Quality of Life in an Australian Parkinson’s Disease Cohort

Figure 1

NMS and constipation measures’ associations with PDQ-39 total scores in PD cohort. The association between PDQ-39 total scores and (a) UPDRS Part I, (b) Frequency of defecation, (c) Bristol stool chart stool rating, (d) Self-reported constipation question, and (e) all constipation measures (b)–(d) combined. Blue represents the constipated group and orange the not constipated group. was considered statistically significant and indicated by.