Impact of Clinical Factors on Generic and Disease-Specific Quality of Life in COPD and Asthma-COPD Overlap with ExacerbationsRead the full article
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Noninvasive Neurally Adjusted Ventilator Assist Ventilation in the Postoperative Period Produces Better Patient-Ventilator Synchrony but Not Comfort
Background. Noninvasive neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) has been shown to improve patient-ventilator interaction in many settings. There is still scarce data with regard to postoperative patients indicated for noninvasive ventilation (NIV) which this study elates. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate postoperative patients for synchrony and comfort in noninvasive pressure support ventilation (NIV-PSV) vs. NIV-NAVA. Methods. Twenty-two subjects received either NIV-NAVA or NIV-PSV in an object-blind, prospective, randomized, crossover fashion (observational trial). We evaluated blood gases and ventilator tracings throughout as well as comfort of ventilation at the end of each ventilation phase. Results. There was an effective reduction in ventilator delays () and negative pressure duration in NIV-NAVA as compared to NIV-PSV (). Although we used optimized settings in NIV-PSV, explaining the overall low incidence of asynchrony, NIV-NAVA led to reductions in the NeuroSync-index () and all types of asynchrony except for double triggering that was significantly more frequent in NIV-NAVA vs. NIV-PSV (); ineffective efforts were reduced to zero by use of NIV-NAVA. In our population of previously lung-healthy subjects, we did not find differences in blood gases and patient comfort between the two modes. Conclusion. In the postoperative setting, NIV-NAVA is well suitable for use and effective in reducing asynchronies as well as a surrogate for work of breathing. Although increased synchrony was not transferred into an increased comfort, there was an advantage with regard to patient-ventilator interaction. The trial was registered at the German clinical Trials Register (DRKS no.: DRKS00005408).
Patient Delay in Initiating Tuberculosis Treatment and Associated Factors in Oromia Special Zone, Amhara Region
Background. Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global public health problem. The disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia. Early identification of cases and commencement of effective chemotherapy is an effective method to control the spread of tuberculosis. Delay in diagnosis and starting tuberculosis treatment increases severity, risk of mortality, and transmission of the disease in the community. Objective. The purpose of this study is to assess the magnitude of patient delay in initiating tuberculosis treatment and its associated factors among tuberculosis patients in health facilities of Oromia Special Zone, Ethiopia. Methods. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Oromia Special Zone. Data were collected using pretested questionnaires from patients with tuberculosis who are on treatment during the study period. The simple random sampling method was used to select health facilities and study participants. Data were entered using Epi Info version 7.2 and analyzed by SPSS version 23. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to see the significance of association between the outcome and independent variables. A value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Three hundred and eighty-seven tuberculosis patients aged 18 years and above enrolled in the study. Among these, 223 (57.6%) were males, 194 (50.1%) were married, and 206 (53.2%) lived in rural areas. The mean age of respondents was 35 years. The median patient delay was 35 () days, and 54.4% of patients seek their first consultation after 21 days. Patients who have a basic schooling level (, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.89) compared with the college/university level, long distance greater than 10 km (, 95% CI: 1.97, 5.42), seeking treatment from informal source and private drug stores (, 95% CI: 1.52, 5.95), extrapulmonary tuberculosis (, 95% CI: 1.26, 4.23), and poor knowledge about tuberculosis (, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.49) were associated factors that predict patient delay. Conclusion and Recommendation. A significant proportion of tuberculosis patients delayed to seek treatment. Health promotion and education involving different stake holders will make the community create awareness about tuberculosis that could help reduce delays in initiating tuberculosis treatment.
Predictive Value of Pleural Cytology in the Diagnosis of Complicated Parapneumonic Effusions and Empyema Thoracis
Introduction. Complicated parapneumonic effusions (CPE) are distinguished from uncomplicated parapneumonic effusions (UPE) by the ability to resolve without drainage. Determinants include pleural pH, pleural glucose, and pleural LDH, along with microbiologic cultures. Inflammation mediated by neutrophil chemotactic cytokines leads to fibrinous loculation of an effusion, and the degree of this inflammation may lead to a CPE. One role of the pathologist is to evaluate for the presence of malignancy in a pleural effusion; however, the ability of the pathologist to distinguish a CPE from UPE has not been evaluated. Materials and Methods. A single-center retrospective study was performed on pleural cytology specimens from 137 patients diagnosed with a parapneumonic effusion or empyema over a five-year interval. Pleural cytology was characterized as either uncomplicated or complicated by two pathologists based on cellular composition and the presence or absence of fibrinous exudate in the fluid. Cohen’s kappa was calculated for interobserver agreement. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of cytologic diagnoses were calculated. Determinants of cytologic accuracy were assessed using Wilcoxon rank sum test, unpaired -test, and logistic regression. Results. Kappa interobserver agreement between pathologists was 0.753. Pleural fluid cytology sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for CPE/empyema were 76.0%, 95% CI [65.0, 84.9]; 50%, 95% CI [29.1, 70.9]; 83.3%, 95% CI [76.7, 88.4]; and 38.7%, 95% CI [26.5, 52.5], respectively. The presence of pleural bacteria, elevated pleural LDH, and reduced pleural pH were nonsignificant determinants of cytologic accuracy. Logistic regression was significant for the presence of pleural bacteria () in determining a successful cytologic diagnosis. Conclusion. Pleural cytology adds little value to traditional markers of distinguishing a UPE from CPE. Inflammation on pleural fluid cytology is suggestive of empyema or the presence of pleural fluid bacteria.
Comparison between the Interferon γ Release Assay—QuantiFERON Gold Plus (QFT-Plus)—and Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) in the Detection of Tuberculosis Infection in Immunocompromised Children
Background. Immunocompromised patients are at a higher risk of having latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus) has been proven to perform effectively in LTBI detection among immunocompromised adults and can overcome the limitations of the tuberculin skin test (TST). However, the role of QFT-Plus in detecting LTBI in immunocompromised paediatric patients has not been well established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the test agreement between QFT-Plus and the TST in LTBI detection among immunocompromised children. Method. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled immunocompromised paediatric patients, aged between 5 and 18 years, who were treated with corticosteroids and/or chemotherapy from June to November 2019. We categorized them into three groups based on the following diseases: hematologic malignancies and nephrological and immunological diseases. We recorded the patient characteristics and QFT-Plus and TST results, in which the positive result of the TST was . Within the same group, comparisons between the two tests were performed using the McNemar test, and results were statistically significant for values of <0.05. The kappa index was used to assess the agreement between the two test results. Results. Among 71 patients (median age: 11.8 years) who underwent TST and QFT-Plus testing, 52% were females, and 69% had a normal nutritional status. Chemotherapy was the most common treatment modality for hematologic malignancy compared to other immunosuppressive treatments. The total number of patients with positive QFT-Plus and TST results was 11/71 (15.5%) and 4/71 (5.6%), respectively, among whom 3/11 patients had positive results in both tests, and one patient with positive TST results exhibited a discrepancy, as this was not followed by positive QFT-Plus results. QFT-Plus generated more positive results than the TST in immunocompromised children (McNemar, ()). The diagnostic agreement between the tests was fair (, 95% CI: 0.05–0.745). Conclusion. QFT-Plus detected LTBI more effectively than the TST in immunocompromised children.
Association of TERT, OGG1, and CHRNA5 Polymorphisms and the Predisposition to Lung Cancer in Eastern Algeria
Lung cancer remains the most common cancer in the world. The genetic polymorphisms (rs2853669 in TERT, rs1052133 in OGG1, and rs16969968 in CHRNA5 genes) were shown to be strongly associated with the risk of lung cancer. Our study’s aim is to elucidate whether these polymorphisms predispose Eastern Algerian population to non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To date, no study has considered this association in the Algerian population. This study included 211 healthy individuals and 144 NSCLC cases. Genotyping was performed using TaqMan probes and Sanger sequencing, and the data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression adjusted for covariates. The minor allele frequencies (MAFs) of TERT rs2853669, CHRNA5 rs16969968, and OGG1 rs1052133 polymorphisms in controls were C: 20%, A: 31%, and G: 29%, respectively. Of the three polymorphisms, none shows a significant association, but stratified analysis rs16969968 showed that persons carrying the AA genotype are significantly associated with adenocarcinoma risk (, ). Smokers with an AA allele have a larger risk of lung cancer than smokers with GG or GA genotype (, ), which is not the case of nonsmokers. Our study suggests that CHRNA5 rs16969968 polymorphism is associated with a significant increase of lung adenocarcinoma risk and with a nicotinic addiction.
High Serum Level of IL-17 in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and the Alpha-1 Antitrypsin PiZ Allele
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is multifactorial disease, which is characterized by airflow limitation and can be provoked by genetic factors, including carriage of the PiZ allele of the protease inhibitor (Pi) gene, encoding alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT). Both homozygous and heterozygous PiZ allele carriers can develop COPD. It was found recently that normal A1AT regulates cytokine levels, including IL-17, which is involved in COPD progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether homozygous or heterozygous PiZ allele carriage leads to elevated level of IL-17 and other proinflammatory cytokines in COPD patients. Materials and Methods. Serum samples and clinical data were obtained from 44 COPD patients, who included 6 PiZZ, 8 PiMZ, and 30 PiMM A1AT phenotype carriers. Serum concentrations of IL-17, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All A1AT phenotypes were verified by narrow pH range isoelectrofocusing with selective A1AT staining. A turbidimetric method was used for quantitative A1AT measurements. Results. COPD patients with both PiZZ and PiMZ phenotypes demonstrated elevated IL-17 and decreased IFN-γ levels in comparison to patients with the PiMM phenotype of A1AT. Thereafter, the ratio IL-17/IFN-γ in PiZZ and PiMZ groups greatly exceeded the values of the PiMM group. Homozygous PiZ allele carriers also had significantly higher levels of IL-6 and lower levels of IL-8, and IL-6 values correlated negatively with A1AT concentrations. Conclusions. The presence of the PiZ allele in both homozygous and heterozygous states is associated with altered serum cytokine levels, including elevated IL-17, IL-17/IFN-γ ratio, and IL-6 (only PiZZ), but lower IFN-γ and IL-8.