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Pulmonary Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 610921, 6 pages
Clinical Study

Effect of Nebulized Morphine on Dyspnea of Mustard Gas-Exposed Patients: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial Study

1Research Center of Chemical Injuries, Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University, Mollasadra Street, P.O. Box 19945-546, Tehran, Iran
2School of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom 7414846199, Iran
3Department of Neurology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Tehran 19839-63113, Iran

Received 8 December 2011; Revised 20 January 2012; Accepted 20 January 2012

Academic Editor: Marc A. Judson

Copyright © 2012 Majid Shohrati et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Dyspnea is one of the main complaints in a group of COPD patients due to exposure to sulfur mustard (SM) and is refractory to conventional therapies. We designed this study to evaluate effectiveness of nebulized morphine in such patients. Materials and Methods. In a double-blind clinical trial study, 40 patients with documented history of exposure to SM were allocated to two groups: group 1 who received 1 mg morphine sulfate diluted by 4 cc normal saline 0.5% using nebulizer once daily for 5 days and group 2 serving as control who received normal saline as placebo. They were visited by pulmonologist 7 times per day to check symptoms and signs and adverse events. Different parameters including patient-scored peak expiratory flow using pick flow meter, visual analogue scale (VAS) for dyspnea, global quality of life and cough, and number of respiratory rate, night time awaking for dyspnea and cough have been assessed. Results. The scores of VAS for dyspnea, cough and quality of life and also respiratory rate, heart rate, and night time awaking due to dyspnea and night time awaking due to cough improved significantly after morphine nebulization without any major adverse events. Also pick expiratory flow has been improved significantly after nebulization in each day. Conclusion. Our results showed the clinical benefit of nebulized morphine on respiratory complaints of patients due to exposure to SM without significant side effects.