Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Pulmonary Medicine
Volume 2012, Article ID 808260, 13 pages
Review Article

Smoking and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

1MedImmune, LLC., One MedImmune Way, Gaithersburg, MD 20878, USA
2MedImmune, Ltd., Milstein Building, Granta Park Cambridge, CB21 6GH, UK

Received 25 May 2011; Revised 9 August 2011; Accepted 7 December 2011

Academic Editor: Marco Chilosi

Copyright © 2012 Chad K. Oh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a disease of unknown etiology with considerable morbidity and mortality. Cigarette smoking is one of the most recognized risk factors for development of IPF. Furthermore, recent work suggests that smoking may have a detrimental effect on survival of patients with IPF. The mechanism by which smoking may contribute to the pathogenesis of IPF is largely unknown. However, accumulating evidence suggests that increased oxidative stress might promote disease progression in IPF patients who are current and former smokers. In this review, potential mechanisms by which cigarette smoking affects IPF, the effects of cigarette smoking on accelerated loss of lung function in patients with IPF, key genetic studies evaluating the potential candidate genes and gene-environment (smoking) interaction, diagnosis, and treatment with emphasis on recently closed and ongoing clinical trials are presented.