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Pulmonary Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 235190, 6 pages
Clinical Study

Drug Resistance among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Calabar, Nigeria

1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, PMB 1278, Cross River State, Nigeria
2Department of Medicine, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, PMB 3452, Kano, Nigeria
3Department of Community Medicine, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, PMB 1278, Cross River State, Nigeria
4Zankli Medical Centre, Plot 1021 Shehu YarAdua Way, Abuja, Nigeria

Received 21 February 2013; Revised 24 June 2013; Accepted 18 July 2013

Academic Editor: S. L. Johnston

Copyright © 2013 Akaninyene Otu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. This study aimed to determine the pattern of drug susceptibility to first-line drugs among pulmonary TB patients in two hospitals in Calabar, Nigeria. Methods. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out between February 2011 and April 2012. Sputum samples from consecutive TB patients in Calabar were subjected to culture on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) slopes followed by drug susceptibility testing (DST). The DST was performed on LJ medium by the proportion method. Results. Forty-two of the 100 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were found to be resistant to at least one drug. Resistance to only one drug (monoresistance) was found in 17 patients. No strains with monoresistance to rifampicin were found. Resistance to two drugs was found in 22 patients, while one patient was resistant to both three and four drugs. MDR TB was seen in 4% (4/100). The independent variables of HIV serology and sex were not significantly associated with resistance ( ). Conclusion. There was a high prevalence of anti-TB drug resistance in Calabar.