Table 1: Odds ratios and 95% confident intervals of diagnosed depression and 30-day anxiety on diagnosed asthma and current wheezing in adults by region and country.

Diagnosed asthmaCurrent wheezing
Country*30-day anxietyDiagnosed depression30-day anxietyDiagnosed depression
Adjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)

South Pacific
 Australia1.5 (1.0–2.3)2.5 (1.7–3.7)
W. Europe
 Estonia1.6 (0.8–3.0)2.5 (1.4–4.6)2.2 (1.3–3.7)1.8 (1.1–3.1)
 Finland1.8 (1.1–2.9)2.4 (1.5–3.6)
 France2.0 (1.1–3.7)3.1 (1.5–6.3)
 Ireland2.7 (1.3–5.6)4.1 (2.0–8.5)
 Latvia1.4 (0.5–3.6)2.0 (0.3–11.5)2.4 (1.1–5.2)4.0 (1.8–9.1)
 Luxembourg1.4 (0.7–3.1)1.8 (0.9–3.3)
 Norway2.0 (1.1–3.4)3.0 (1.7–5.3)
 Portugal2.0 (1.5–3.3)3.5 (2.1–5.9)
 Spain1.9 (1.4–2.5)1.4 (1.0–2.0)2.4 (1.9–3.1)1.8 (1.3–2.4)
 Sweden2.6 (0.9–7.8)4.2 (2.0–8.7)
E. Europe
 Croatia1.3 (0.7–2.4)1.2 (0.4–3.9)1.9 (1.1–3.4)1.7 (0.7–4.2)
 Czech Rep.1.2 (0.5–2.9)2.0 (0.7–5.8)3.1 (1.5–6.8)1.7 (0.7–4.3)
 Hungary1.1 (0.6–1.8)1.4 (0.7–3.2)1.8 (1.3–2.6)2.5 (1.6–3.8)
 Russia1.2 (0.7–2.2)10.4 (2.0–53.4)1.9 (1.0–3.6)8.4 (3.1–22.9)
 Ukraine1.9 (1.0–3.4)1.6 (0.8–3.3)2.9 (2.0–4.3)3.3 (1.8–6.0)
America
 Brazil1.2 (1.0–1.5)1.8 (1.4–2.3)1.7 (1.4–2.2)2.1 (1.7–2.5)
 Dominican1.4 (1.0–1.9)2.0 (1.3–3.1)1.8 (1.1–2.8)2.5 (1.4–4.2)
 Ecuador1.3 (0.7–2.7)3.0 (1.6–5.7)1.9 (0.9–3.8)4.9 (2.6–9.3)
 Mexico2.5 (2.1–3.0)1.9 (1.4–2.5)2.9 (2.4–3.6) 2.5 (1.8–3.3)
 Paraguay1.1 (0.8–1.6)1.4 (0.8–2.4)1.8 (1.4–2.3)1.2 (0.7–1.8)
 Uruguay2.0 (1.6–2.6)1.3 (0.8–2.3)2.4 (1.7–3.5)1.5 (1.0–2.2)
Middle East
 Georgia1.6 (0.8–3.5)0.9 (0.4–2.1)2.9 (1.8–4.7)1.3 (0.7–2.4)
 Israel2.0 (1.1–4.0)3.9 (2.2–6.9)
 Turkey1.3 (0.99–1.8)1.5 (1.0–2.1)2.2 (1.9–2.6)1.4 (1.1–1.8)
 UAE1.3 (0.8–2.3)2.7 (1.1–6.8)0.9 (0.3–2.2)6.2 (1.2–31.8)
Africa
 Burkina Faso2.0 (1.2–3.6)13.0 (5.6–30.1)2.2 (1.4–3.5)7.3 (3.3–15.8)
 Chad1.0 (0.7–1.6)9.1 (3.9–21.3)2.4 (1.6–3.6)12.8 (6.6–24.6)
 Comoros1.1 (0.7–1.8)18.4 (5.2–65.6)1.2 (0.8–1.8)16.0 (5.4–47.9)
 Cote d'Ivoire1.4 (0.9–2.1)6.1 (2.5–15.1)1.9 (1.2–2.9)10.0 (5.2–19.4)
 Ethiopia1.5 (0.9–2.5)5.0 (2.7–9.3)1.8 (1.3–2.5)4.8 (3.1–7.4)
 Ghana0.9 (0.6–1.3)2.0 (0.7–5.2)1.4 (0.9–2.3)3.9 (1.4–11.1)
 Kenya1.1 (0.6–2.3)1.5 (0.6–3.6)2.4 (1.5–3.9)1.2 (0.6–2.7)
 Malawi1.4 (1.0–1.9)5.5 (2.7–11.1)2.3 (1.7–3.1)4.4 (2.1–9.5)
 Mauritania1.2 (0.8–1.7)7.3 (3.4–16.0)1.4 (0.9–1.9)5.3 (2.6–11.0)
 Mauritius1.8 (1.2–2.8)2.1 (1.4–3.4)2.3 (1.7–3.2)3.3 (2.1–5.0)
 Moroccon/a 2.9 (1.4–6.2)n/a 2.0 (1.0–3.8)
 Namibia1.6 (0.99–2.7)3.5 (2.0–6.1)1.9 (1.4–2.6)2.9 (1.9–4.4)
 Senegal1.9 (1.1–3.3)0.5 (0.1–1.9)2.7 (1.6–4.5)5.9 (2.0–17.6)
 S. Africa1.5 (0.99–2.2)3.3 (1.6–6.9)2.4 (1.7–3.4)4.1 (2.5–6.7)
 Tunisia2.5 (1.6–4.0)4.5 (2.6–7.7)3.1 (2.2–4.3)2.2 (1.3–3.7)
 Zimbabwe1.1 (0.7–1.7)2.5 (1.0–6.0)1.6 (1.1–2.2)2.7 (1.5–4.7)
Asia
 Bangladesh2.0 (1.3–3.2)2.1 (1.1–4.1)2.1 (1.6–3.0)2.2 (1.3–3.9)
 China3.3 (1.8–6.0)5.1 (0.7–36.7)3.4 (2.2–5.3)4.2 (0.5–33.0)
 India1.9 (1.4–2.6)2.1 (1.5–2.7)2.2 (1.6–2.9)1.7 (1.4–2.2)
 Kazakhstan0.9 (0.4–2.1)0.8 (0.2–2.8)0.9 (0.5–1.6)1.9 (0.7–5.1)
 Laos1.0 (0.7–1.6)3.7 (1.6–8.1)2.3 (1.6–3.2)3.6 (1.8–6.9)
 Malaysia2.5 (1.9–3.2)1.2 (0.6–2.1)2.6 (2.0–3.3)2.5 (1.5–4.0)
 Myanmar2.4 (1.7–3.6)2.4 (0.5–11.5)2.5 (1.6–4.0)5.4 (1.9–15.4)
 Nepal1.5 (1.1–2.1)1.9 (1.4–2.5)1.7 (1.5–2.0)1.8 (1.5–2.0)
 Pakistan2.4 (1.8–3.3)2.7 (1.4–5.5)2.2 (1.6–3.0)6.0 (3.2–11.1)
 Philippines1.1 (0.9–1.3)4.6 (3.2–6.5)1.6 (1.3–1.9)7.2 (5.3–9.8)
 Sri Lanka0.6 (0.5–0.9)7.1 (3.2–16.0)1.1 (0.8–1.4)12.2 (6.5–22.7)
 Vietnam4.0 (2.0–8.2)n/a 3.2 (1.9–5.3)5.0 (0.5–46.9)

*Unless specified otherwise, ORs are derived from the final multiple logistic models containing age, sex, 30-day anxiety, diagnosed depression, significant ( ) variables, and confounders. Bolded ORs are statistically significant at . 30-day anxiety is unavailable due to the use of short WHS questionnaire; ORs are adjusted for age and sex. Missing >25% of data.