Pulmonary Medicine / 2013 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Asthma and Wheezing Are Associated with Depression and Anxiety in Adults: An Analysis from 54 Countries

Table 2

Odds ratios and 95% confident intervals of diagnosed depression and 30-day anxiety on current chest tightness and current shortness of breath in adults by region and country.

Current chest tightnessCurrent shortness of breath
Country*30-day anxietyDiagnosed depression30-day anxietyDiagnosed depression
Adjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)

South Pacific
 Australia3.5 (2.6–4.8)3.3 (2.2–4.9)
W. Europe
 Estonia4.4 (2.9–6.6)1.7 (1.2–2.6)2.3 (1.4–3.6)2.3 (1.1–4.6)
 Finland1.5 (0.8–2.6)3.1 (1.7–5.5)
 France3.8 (2.0–7.1)3.8 (1.6–9.1)
 Ireland8.7 (4.4–16.9)9.4 (4.4–20.0)
 Latvia5.1 (2.6–10.2)4.7 (2.5–9.0)2.3 (1.1–5.0)6.2 (3.0–13.1)
 Luxembourg3.9 (2.2–7.1)3.7 (1.8–7.4)
 Norway2.5 (1.5–4.2)1.6 (0.6–4.3)
 Portugal3.5 (2.3–5.4)4.0 (2.7–5.7)
 Spain3.7 (2.8–4.9)1.9 (1.5–2.5)3.3 (2.4–4.6)2.1 (1.6–2.9)
 Sweden2.5 (1.3–4.8)3.0 (1.1–8.6)
E. Europe
 Croatia2.2 (1.4–3.4)2.3 (1.2–4.5)2.2 (1.3–3.8)3.6 (1.7–7.8)
 Czech Rep.5.0 (2.3–10.9)0.8 (0.3–1.8)1.6 (0.7–3.8)4.7 (1.7–13.4)
 Hungary2.2 (1.5–3.0)2.2 (1.4–3.3)2.5 (1.8–3.5)3.3 (2.2–5.2)
 Russia1.8 (1.1–2.8)4.6 (1.7–12.3)2.1 (1.3–3.6)6.8 (2.1–21.5)
 Ukraine2.9 (2.1–4.1)2.9 (1.6–5.1)3.5 (2.0–6.2)3.1 (1.9–5.4)
America
 Brazil2.6 (2.1–3.2)2.3 (1.9–2.7)2.6 (2.0–3.5)2.3 (1.9–2.9)
 Dominican2.2 (1.6–3.1)2.4 (1.7–3.4)2.6 (1.5–4.6)3.4 (1.9–6.0)
 Ecuador2.3 (1.4–3.6) 4.0 (2.7–5.9) 1.9 (0.9–3.9) 4.0 (2.2–7.2)
 Mexico3.3 (2.9–3.8) 3.3 (2.5–4.3) 3.7 (3.1–4.5) 3.3 (2.6–4.3)
 Paraguay2.6 (2.1–3.3)1.9 (1.3–2.7)2.7 (2.0–3.5)2.9 (2.0–4.1)
 Uruguay2.7 (1.7–4.4)3.2 (2.7–3.9)2.9 (2.1–4.1)3.6 (2.4–5.2)
Middle East
 Georgia2.4 (1.6–3.5)1.8 (1.3–2.6)2.6 (1.8–3.8)2.0 (0.9–4.5)
 Israel4.2 (2.5–7.0)3.1 (1.7–5.7)
 Turkey2.4 (2.0–2.8)1.5 (1.2–1.8)2.2 (1.7–2.9)2.2 (1.6–3.0)
 UAE3.1 (1.6–6.2)6.7 (2.8–16.4)2.7 (1.0–7.3)5.4 (2.2–13.4)
Africa
 Burkina Faso3.1 (2.1–4.6)9.5 (4.5–20.1)3.6 (2.5–5.1)10.2 (4.4–23.4)
 Chad2.5 (1.8–3.5)13.1 (6.5–26.2)3.2 (2.0–5.1)24.1 (11.4–50.9)
 Comoros1.5 (0.99–2.4)7.1 (2.4–20.9)1.7 (1.0–3.0)10.5 (3.4–32.5)
 Cote d'Ivoire3.5 (2.3–5.2)6.6 (3.1–14.0)2.8 (1.8–4.3)9.7 (4.5–20.8)
 Ethiopia2.6 (1.9–3.5)4.8 (3.0–7.6)2.4 (1.7–3.4)5.9 (3.7–9.4)
 Ghana2.0 (1.3–3.1)3.0 (1.0–8.5)1.7 (1.1–2.6)3.5 (1.2–10.6)
 Kenya2.8 (1.8–4.5)1.0 (0.5–2.3)2.2 (1.5–3.1)1.2 (0.5–2.9)
 Malawi2.7 (2.1–3.6)4.2 (2.2–8.3)2.6 (1.9–3.5)6.8 (3.2–14.6)
 Mauritania1.6 (1.2–2.1)12.4 (7.1–21.6)1.6 (1.1–2.2)23.0 (12.3–43.0)
 Mauritius1.9 (1.3–2.9)4.2 (2.6–6.8)2.7 (1.6–4.5)4.3 (2.6–7.0)
 Moroccon/a 3.0 (1.8–5.0)n/a 3.1 (1.8–5.4)
 Namibia3.8 (2.7–5.2)3.1 (2.0–4.7)2.3 (1.6–3.4)4.5 (2.9–7.1)
 Senegal3.8 (2.6–5.6) 2.2 (0.8–6.1) 2.5 (1.7–3.8) 3.7 (1.5–9.2)
 S. Africa2.5 (1.8–3.3)3.0 (1.7–5.3)2.4 (1.6–3.5)3.6 (1.9–7.0)
 Tunisia4.0 (3.1–5.3)1.6 (1.0–2.4)3.2 (2.2–4.6)3.1 (2.0–4.9)
 Zimbabwe2.0 (1.5–2.6)2.3 (1.5–3.6)1.8 (1.3–2.4)2.4 (1.5–4.1)
Asia
 Bangladesh3.1 (2.3–4.2)4.0 (2.5–6.6)2.8 (1.9–4.2)2.9 (1.6–5.1)
 China5.3 (2.8–9.7)5.5 (1.3–23.8)4.8 (2.4–9.3)4.5 (0.6–33.8)
 India4.0 (3.1–5.1)2.0 (1.6–2.6)3.1 (2.2–4.4)2.6 (2.0–3.4)
 Kazakhstan1.0 (0.7–1.4)2.3 (0.9–6.4)0.8 (0.6–1.2)2.4 (0.8–7.0)
 Laos2.1 (1.6–2.9)3.4 (1.8–6.5)2.5 (1.5–3.9)4.8 (2.5–9.2)
 Malaysia3.8 (3.0–4.8)2.8 (1.6–4.7)4.1 (2.8–6.0)2.4 (1.6–4.7)
 Myanmar3.5 (2.3–5.3)6.0 (2.6–13.6)4.4 (3.0–6.6)7.5 (2.9–20.0)
 Nepal2.1 (1.8–2.5)2.1 (1.8–2.4)1.5 (1.3–1.9)1.8 (1.5–2.1)
 Pakistan3.7 (2.8–5.0)3.9 (2.2–6.8)2.8 (1.7–4.5)4.4 (2.4–7.9)
 Philippines1.8 (1.5–2.1)7.5 (5.5–10.2)1.9 (1.5–2.5)8.6 (6.1–12.3)
 Sri Lanka0.9 (0.6–1.3)6.4 (3.2–12.9)1.0 (0.8–1.4)8.1 (3.4–19.1)
 Vietnam6.5 (3.9–10.7)2.0 (0.3–16.9)6.0 (2.9–12.5)5.1 (0.9–28.3)

*All ORs are derived from the final multiple logistic models containing age, sex, 30-day anxiety, and diagnosed depression. Bolded ORs are statistically significant at . 30-day anxiety is unavailable due to the use of short WHS questionnaire; ORs are adjusted for age and sex. Missing >25% of data.

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