Pulmonary Medicine / 2013 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

Asthma and Wheezing Are Associated with Depression and Anxiety in Adults: An Analysis from 54 Countries

Table 3

Summary of independent variables.

VariableRecoded responses*


Sex(i) Male
(ii) Female
Age group(i) 18–34 years
(ii) 35–54 years
(iii) ≥55 years
Obesity(i) BMI < 30
(ii) BMI ≥ 30
Urban/rural(i) Rural setting, residence
(ii) Urban setting, residence

SES indicator

Household spending(i) Lower 50%ile, survey sample
(ii) Upper 50%ile, survey sample
Education(i) Before the completion of secondary school
(ii) Secondary school completed or beyond


30-day anxiety(i) Did not experience anxiety at all in last 30 days
(ii) Experienced at least some anxiety in last 30 days
Diagnosed depression(i) No (never been diagnosed)
(ii) Yes (has been diagnosed)


Current smoking(i) No
(ii) Yes
Floor type(i) Earth floor, dwelling
(ii) Hard floor, dwelling
Cooking fuel(i) Other
(ii) Hydrocarbon (gas, kerosene, coal, and charcoal)

*Reference groups are indicated with (i).