Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Pulmonary Medicine
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 105864, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/105864
Research Article

Trends in Pulmonary Hypertension Mortality and Morbidity

Department of Medicine, Howard University, 2041 Georgia Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20060, USA

Received 18 March 2014; Accepted 14 May 2014; Published 1 June 2014

Academic Editor: Luisetti Maurizio

Copyright © 2014 Alem Mehari et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. B. Badesch, H. C. Champion, M. A. Gomez Sanchez et al., “Diagnosis and assessment of pulmonary arterial hypertension,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 54, no. 1, supplement, pp. S55–S66, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. Simonneau, N. Galiè, L. J. Rubin et al., “Clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 43, no. 12, supplement, pp. 5S–12S, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. Simonneau, I. M. Robbins, M. Beghetti et al., “Updated Clinical Classification of Pulmonary Hypertension,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 54, no. 1, supplement 1, pp. S43–S54, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. F. Voelkel, R. A. Quaife, L. A. Leinwand et al., “Right ventricular function and failure: report of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group on cellular and molecular mechanisms of right heart failure,” Circulation, vol. 114, no. 17, pp. 1883–1891, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. V. V. McLaughlin, “Looking to the future: a new decade of pulmonary arterial hypertension therapy,” European Respiratory Review, vol. 20, no. 122, pp. 262–269, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. K. Davis, D. E. Lilienfeld, and R. L. Doyle, “Increased mortality in African Americans with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension,” Journal of the National Medical Association, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 69–72, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Hyduk, J. B. Croft, C. Ayala, K. Zheng, Z.-J. Zheng, and G. A. Mensah, “Pulmonary hypertension surveillance–United States, 1980–2002,” MMWR Surveillance Summaries, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 1–28, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. E. Lilienfeld and L. J. Rubin, “Mortality from primary pulmonary hypertension in the United States, 1979–1996,” Chest, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 796–800, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. Link, C. Glazer, F. Torres, and K. Chin, “International classification of diseases coding changes lead to profound declines in reported idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension mortality and hospitalizations: implications for database studies,” Chest, vol. 139, no. 3, pp. 497–504, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Rich, E. Chomka, L. Hasara et al., “The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in the United States. Adult population estimates obtained from measurements of chest roentgenograms from the NHANES II Survey,” Chest, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 236–241, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. N. Anderson, A. M. Miniño, D. L. Hoyert, and H. M. Rosenberg, “Comparability of cause of death between ICD-9 and ICD-10: preliminary estimates,” National Vital Statistics Reports, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 1–32, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. G. R. Bramer, “International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems. Tenth revision,” World Health Statistics Quarterly, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 32–36, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. Weitzenblum, “Chronic cor pulmonale,” Circulation, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 594–615, 1963. View at Google Scholar
  14. “MANUAL of the international statistical classification of diseases, injuries, and causes of death. Addendum 1. Supplementary interpretations and instructions for coding causes of death,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Supplement, vol. 7, supplement 6, pp. 1–55, 1953.
  15. “The international conference for the tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases. Strengthening of Epidemiological and Statistical Services Unit. World Health Organization, Geneva,” World Health Statistics Quarterly, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 204–245, 1990.
  16. R. N. Anderson and H. M. Rosenberg, “Age standardization of death rates: implementation of the year 2000 standard,” National Vital Statistics Reports, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 1–16, 20, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. J. Klein and C. A. Schoenborn, “Age adjustment using the 2000 projected U.S. population,” Healthy People 2000 Statistical Notes, no. 20, pp. 1–9, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Underlying Cause of Death 1999–2009 on CDC WONDER Online Database, 2012, http://wonder.cdc.gov/ucd-icd10.html.
  19. National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, Md, USA, 2009, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss.htm.
  20. W. R. Simmons and G. A. Schnack, Development of the Design of the NCHS Hospital Discharge Survey. Vital Health Statistics, series 2, no. 39, DHEW publication no. (HRA) 77-1199, Human Resources Administration, Rockville, Md, USA, 1977, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_02/sr02_039.pdf.
  21. L. J. Kozak, Underreporting of Race in the National Hospital Discharge Survey, Advance data no. 265, US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, Md, USA, 1995, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/ad/ad265.pdf.
  22. US Department of Health and Human Services. The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, DHHS publication no. (PHS) 91-1260, US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, National Center for Health Statistics, Health Care Financing Administration, Hyattsville, Md, USA, 4th edition, 1991.
  23. D. Mukerjee, D. St George, B. Coleiro et al., “Prevalence and outcome in systemic sclerosis associated pulmonary arterial hypertension: application of a registry approach,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 62, no. 11, pp. 1088–1093, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. A. Israel, H. M. Rosenberg, and L. R. Curtin, “Analytical potential for multiple cause-of-death data,” The American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 161–179, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. B. Badesch, G. E. Raskob, C. G. Elliott et al., “Pulmonary arterial hypertension: baseline characteristics from the REVEAL registry,” Chest, vol. 137, no. 2, pp. 376–387, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. E. Frost, D. B. Badesch, R. J. Barst et al., “The changing picture of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension in the United States: how REVEAL differs from historic and non-US contemporary registries,” Chest, vol. 139, no. 1, pp. 128–137, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. E. D'Alonzo, R. J. Barst, S. M. Ayres et al., “Survival in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension: results from a national prospective registry,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 115, no. 5, pp. 343–349, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. K. M. Flegal, D. Carroll, B. K. Kit, and C. L. Ogden, “Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999–2010,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 307, no. 5, pp. 491–497, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Humbert, O. Sitbon, A. Chaouat et al., “Survival in patients with idiopathic, familial, and anorexigen-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension in the modern management era,” Circulation, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 156–163, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. T. Geronimus, J. Bound, T. A. Waidmann, M. M. Hillemeier, and P. B. Burns, “Excess mortality among blacks and whites in the United States,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 335, no. 21, pp. 1552–1558, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. E. D. Austin, T. Lahm, J. West et al., “Gender, sex hormones and pulmonary hypertension,” Pulmonary Circulation, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 294–314, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar