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Pulmonary Medicine
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 8081723, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8081723
Research Article

Cystatin C Levels in Middle-Aged Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

1Master Program in Sleep Medicine, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
2Laboratory of Hygiene and Environmental Protection, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
3Laboratory of Biopathology, University General Hospital of Evros, Alexandroupolis, Greece
4Department of Pneumonology, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece

Received 29 July 2016; Accepted 27 September 2016

Academic Editor: Dimitris Georgopoulos

Copyright © 2016 Kostas Archontogeorgis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with systemic inflammation and increased risk of cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Cystatin C (Cyst C) is a novel biomarker of both latent renal damage and cardiovascular disease. Aim of the study was to measure serum levels of Cyst C, as well as IL-8 and CRP, in otherwise healthy OSAS patients. Methods. 84 individuals examined with polysomnography for OSAS symptoms without known comorbidities were prospectively recruited. Results. According to apnea hypopnea index (AHI) subjects were divided in two groups: OSAS group (AHI > 5/hour, ) and controls (AHI < 5/hour, ), which were age- and BMI-matched. Cyst C levels were higher in OSAS patients versus controls ( versus  ng/mL, resp.; ) while serum IL-8 and CRP levels did not differ significantly. Positive correlation was found between Cyst C levels and respiratory disturbance index (RDI) (, ) and percentage of time with oxygen saturation <90% (, ) and negative correlation was found between Cyst C levels and average oxygen saturation during sleep (, ). After adjustment for age and BMI, RDI was the only independent predictor of Cyst C levels (β = 0.256, ). Conclusion. Cyst C serum levels are increased in OSAS patients without comorbidities, suggesting an increased renal and cardiovascular disease risk.