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The Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) in Pan-Cancer
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of nuclear transcription factors. The functions of the PPAR family (PPARA, PPARD, and PPARG) and their coactivators (PPARGC1A and PPARGC1B) in maintenance of lipid and glucose homeostasis have been unveiled. However, the roles of PPARs in cancer development remain elusive. In this work, we made use of 11,057 samples across 33 TCGA tumor types to analyze the relationship between PPAR transcriptional expression and tumorigenesis as well as drug sensitivity. We performed multidimensional analyses on PPARA, PPARG, PPARD, PPARGC1A, and PPARGC1B, including differential expression analysis in pan-cancer, immune subtype analysis, clinical analysis, tumor purity analysis, stemness correlation analysis, and drug responses. PPARs and their coactivators expressed differently in different types of cancers, in different immune subtypes. This analysis reveals various expression patterns of the PPAR family at a level of pan-cancer and provides new clues for the therapeutic strategies of cancer.
A New Prognostic Risk Model Based on PPAR Pathway-Related Genes in Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma
Objective. This study is aimed at using genes related to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) pathway to establish a prognostic risk model in kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC). Methods. For this study, we first found the PPAR pathway-related genes on the gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) website and found the KIRC mRNA expression data and clinical data through TCGA database. Subsequently, we used R language and multiple R language expansion packages to analyze the expression, hazard ratio analysis, and coexpression analysis of PPAR pathway-related genes in KIRC. Afterward, using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) website, we established the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of genes related to the PPAR pathway. After that, we used LASSO regression curve analysis to establish a prognostic survival model in KIRC. Finally, based on the model, we conducted correlation analysis of the clinicopathological characteristics, univariate analysis, and multivariate analysis. Results. We found that most of the genes related to the PPAR pathway had different degrees of expression differences in KIRC. Among them, the high expression of 27 genes is related to low survival rate of KIRC patients, and the high expression of 13 other genes is related to their high survival rate. Most importantly, we used 13 of these genes successfully to establish a risk model that could accurately predict patients’ prognosis. There is a clear correlation between this model and metastasis, tumor, stage, grade, and fustat. Conclusions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to analyze the entire PPAR pathway in KIRC in detail and successfully establish a risk model for patient prognosis. We believe that our research can provide valuable data for future researchers and clinicians.
Diet Modifies Pioglitazone’s Influence on Hepatic PPARγ-Regulated Mitochondrial Gene Expression
Pioglitazone (Pio) is a thiazolidinedione (TZD) insulin-sensitizing drug whose effects result predominantly from its modulation of the transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma (PPARγ). Pio is used to treat human insulin-resistant diabetes and also frequently considered for treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In both settings, Pio’s beneficial effects are believed to result primarily from its actions on adipose PPARγ activity, which improves insulin sensitivity and reduces the delivery of fatty acids to the liver. Nevertheless, a recent clinical trial showed variable efficacy of Pio in human NASH. Hepatocytes also express PPARγ, and such expression increases with insulin resistance and in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Furthermore, mice that overexpress hepatocellular PPARγ and Pio-treated mice with extrahepatic PPARγ gene disruption develop features of NAFLD. Thus, Pio’s direct impact on hepatocellular gene expression might also be a determinant of this drug’s ultimate influence on insulin resistance and NAFLD. Previous studies have characterized Pio’s PPARγ-dependent effects on hepatic expression of specific adipogenic, lipogenic, and other metabolic genes. However, such transcriptional regulation has not been comprehensively assessed. The studies reported here address that consideration by genome-wide comparisons of Pio’s hepatic transcriptional effects in wildtype (WT) and liver-specific PPARγ-knockout (KO) mice given either control or high-fat (HFD) diets. The results identify a large set of hepatic genes for which Pio’s liver PPARγ-dependent transcriptional effects are concordant with its effects on RXR-DNA binding in WT mice. These data also show that HFD modifies Pio’s influence on a subset of such transcriptional regulation. Finally, our findings reveal a broader influence of Pio on PPARγ-dependent hepatic expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins than previously recognized. Taken together, these studies provide new insights about the tissue-specific mechanisms by which Pio affects hepatic gene expression and the broad scope of this drug’s influence on such regulation.
The Emerging Role of PPAR Beta/Delta in Tumor Angiogenesis
PPARs are ligand-activated transcriptional factors that belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily. Among them, PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma are prone to exert an antiangiogenic effect, whereas PPAR beta/delta has an opposite effect in physiological and pathological conditions. Angiogenesis has been known as a hallmark of cancer, and our recent works also demonstrate that vascular-specific PPAR beta/delta overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and progression in vivo. In this review, we will mainly focus on the role of PPAR beta/delta in tumor angiogenesis linked to the tumor microenvironment to further facilitate tumor progression and metastasis. Moreover, the crosstalk between PPAR beta/delta and its downstream key signal molecules involved in tumor angiogenesis will also be discussed, and the network of interplay between them will further be established in the review.
PPARD May Play a Protective Role against the Development of Schizophrenia
PPARD has been suggested to contribute to the etiology of schizophrenia (SCZ) with the underlying mechanisms largely unknown. Here, we first collected and analyzed the PPARD expression profile from three groups: (1) 18 healthy control (HC) subjects, (2) 14 clinical high-risk (CHR) patients, and (3) 19 early onset of SCZ (EOS) patients. After that, we conducted a systematical pathway analysis to explore the potential mechanisms involved in PPARD exerting influence on the pathological development of SCZ. Compared to the HC group, the expression of PPARD was slightly decreased in the EOS group (; ) and increased in the CHR group (; ). However, there was a significant difference between the EOS group and the CHR group (; ), reflecting the amount of variation in PPARD expression before and after the onset of SCZ. Pathway analysis suggested that overexpression of PPARD may regulate ten proteins or molecules to inhibit the pathological development of SCZ, including the deactivation of eight SCZ promoters and stimulation of two SCZ inhibitors. Our results support the association between PPARD and SCZ. The pathways identified may help in the understanding of the potential mechanisms by which PPARD contributes to the etiology of SCZ.
The PPAR Ω Pocket: Renewed Opportunities for Drug Development
The past decade of PPARγ research has dramatically improved our understanding of the structural and mechanistic bases for the diverging physiological effects of different classes of PPARγ ligands. The discoveries that lie at the heart of these developments have enabled the design of a new class of PPARγ ligands, capable of isolating central therapeutic effects of PPARγ modulation, while displaying markedly lower toxicities than previous generations of PPARγ ligands. This review examines the emerging framework around the design of these ligands and seeks to unite its principles with the development of new classes of ligands for PPARα and PPARβ/δ. The focus is on the relationships between the binding modes of ligands, their influence on PPAR posttranslational modifications, and gene expression patterns. Specifically, we encourage the design and study of ligands that primarily bind to the Ω pockets of PPARα and PPARβ/δ. In support of this development, we highlight already reported ligands that if studied in the context of this new framework may further our understanding of the gene programs regulated by PPARα and PPARβ/δ. Moreover, recently developed pharmacological tools that can be utilized in the search for ligands with new binding modes are also presented.