Stimulation of Alpha1-Adrenergic Receptor Ameliorates Cellular Functions of Multiorgans beyond Vasomotion through PPARδRead the full article
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Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors as a Therapeutic Target in Asthma
The complexity of the pathogenetic mechanisms of the development of chronic inflammation in asthma determines its heterogeneity and insufficient treatment effectiveness. Nuclear transcription factors, which include peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, that is, PPARs, play an important role in the regulation of initiation and resolution of the inflammatory process. The ability of PPARs to modulate not only lipid homeostasis but also the activity of the inflammatory response makes them an important pathogenetic target in asthma therapy. At present, special attention is focused on natural (polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), endocannabinoids, and eicosanoids) and synthetic (fibrates, thiazolidinediones) PPAR ligands and the study of signaling mechanisms involved in the implementation of their anti-inflammatory effects in asthma. This review summarizes current views on the structure and function of PPARs, as well as their participation in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation in asthma. The potential use of PPAR ligands as therapeutic agents for treating asthma is under discussion.
PPARs and the Development of Type 1 Diabetes
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a family of transcription factors with a key role in glucose and lipid metabolism. PPARs are expressed in many cell types including pancreatic beta cells and immune cells, where they regulate insulin secretion and T cell differentiation, respectively. Moreover, various PPAR agonists prevent diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes. PPARs are thus of interest in type 1 diabetes (T1D) as they represent a novel approach targeting both the pancreas and the immune system. In this review, we examine the role of PPARs in immune responses and beta cell biology and their potential as targets for treatment of T1D.
Piperine Alleviates Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity via Activating PPAR-γ in Mice
Background. Oxidative stress, inflammation and cardiac apoptosis were closely involved in doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiac injury. Piperine has been reported to suppress inflammatory response and pyroptosis in macrophages. However, whether piperine could protect the mice against DOX-related cardiac injury remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether piperine inhibited DOX-related cardiac injury in mice. Methods. To induce DOX-related acute cardiac injury, mice in DOX group were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of DOX (15 mg/kg). To investigate the protective effects of piperine, mice were orally treated for 3 weeks with piperine (50 mg/kg, 18:00 every day) beginning two weeks before DOX injection. Results. Piperine treatment significantly alleviated DOX-induced cardiac injury, and improved cardiac function. Piperine also reduced myocardial oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in mice with DOX injection. Piperine also improved cell viability, and reduced oxidative damage and inflammatory factors in cardiomyocytes. We also found that piperine activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), and the protective effects of piperine were abolished by the treatment of the PPAR-γ antagonist in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions. Piperine could suppress DOX-related cardiac injury via activation of PPAR-γ in mice.
PPAR-γ Ligand Inhibits Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cell Proliferation and Metastasis by Regulating E2F2
Purpose. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) is a nuclear hormone receptor with a key role in lipid metabolism. Previous studies have identified various roles of PPAR-γ in cell cycle progression, cellular proliferation, and tumor progression. However, no report has described a role for PPAR-γ in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Notably, some studies have reported a relationship between PPAR-γ and E2F transcription factor 2 (E2F2), which has been identified as a regulator of cell cycle, apoptosis, and the DNA damage response. Notably, E2F2 has also been reported to correlate with a poor prognosis in patients with various malignancies. Methods. We used immunohistochemical (IHC) and western blot methods to evaluate PPAR-γ and E2F2 expression and function in nonkeratinizing NPC and nasopharyngitis (NPG) tissue samples, as well as western blotting and CCK8 analyses in the NPC cell lines, CNE1 and CNE2. Results. We observed lower levels of PPAR-γ expression in nonkeratinizing NPC tissues compared with NPG tissues and determined an association between a low level of PPAR-γ expression with a more advanced tumor stage. Furthermore, strong E2F2 expression was detected in nonkeratinizing NPC tissues. We further demonstrated that rosiglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist, reduced E2F2 expression and proliferation in NPC cell lines. Conclusions. Our study results revealed a novel role for the PPAR-γ–E2F2 pathway in controlling NPC cell proliferation and metastasis.
15-Deoxy-∆-12,14-Prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), an Endogenous Ligand of PPAR-: Function and Mechanism
15-Deoxy-∆-12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), a natural peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonist, has been explored in some detail over the last 20 years. By triggering the PPAR-γ signalling pathway, it plays many roles and exerts antitumour, anti-inflammatory, antioxidation, antifibrosis, and antiangiogenesis effects. Although many synthetic PPAR-γ receptor agonists have been developed, as an endogenous product of PPAR-γ receptors, 15d-PGJ2 has beneficial characteristics including rapid expression and the ability to contribute to a natural defence mechanism. In this review, we discuss the latest advances in our knowledge of the biological role of 15d-PGJ2 mediated through PPAR-γ. It is important to understand its structure, synthesis, and functional mechanisms to develop preventive agents and limit the progression of associated diseases.
Activation and Expression of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Are Associated with Tumorigenesis in Colorectal Carcinoma
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) belongs to the PPAR family and plays a critical role in inhibiting cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in various tumors. However, the role of PPAR-α in colorectal tumorigenesis is unclear. In the present study, we found that fenofibrate, a PPAR-α agonist, significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in colorectal carcinoma cells. In addition, PPAR-α was expressed in the nucleus of colorectal carcinoma cells, and the expression of nuclear PPAR-α increased in colorectal carcinoma tissue compared with that of normal epithelium tissue (P<0.01). The correlation between the expression of nuclear PPAR- and clinicopathological factors was evaluated in human colorectal carcinoma tissues, and the nuclear expression of PPAR-α was significantly higher in well-to-moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma than in mucinous adenocarcinoma (P<0.05). These findings indicate that activation of PPAR-α may be involved in anticancer effects in colorectal carcinomas, and nuclear expression of PPAR-α may be a therapeutic target for colorectal adenocarcinoma treatment.