PPAR Research
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Acceptance rate23%
Submission to final decision68 days
Acceptance to publication24 days
CiteScore4.900
Journal Citation Indicator0.770
Impact Factor4.385

Activation of PPARγ Protects Obese Mice from Acute Lung Injury by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Promoting Mitochondrial Biogenesis

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 Journal profile

PPAR Research publishes articles related to mechanisms involved in the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, as well as their role in regulation of cellular differentiation, development, energy homeostasis and metabolic function.

 Editor spotlight

Chief Editor, Dr Xiao-Jie Lu, is dedicated to basic and translational research on liver diseases. His research at Nanjing Medical University, China, focuses on exploring these diseases' underlying mechanisms that may be translatable to novel diagnostic biomarkers or therapeutic targets.

 Special Issues

We currently have a number of Special Issues open for submission. Special Issues highlight emerging areas of research within a field, or provide a venue for a deeper investigation into an existing research area.

Latest Articles

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Research Article

Noncoding RNAs Associated with PPARs in Etiology of MAFLD as a Novel Approach for Therapeutics Targets

Background. Metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a complex disease that results from the accumulation of fat in the liver. MAFLD is directly associated with obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. PPARγ ligands, including pioglitazone, are also used in the management of this disease. Noncoding RNAs play a critical role in various diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and liver diseases including MAFLD. However, there is no adequate knowledge about the translation of using these ncRNAs to the clinics, particularly in MAFLD conditions. The aim of this study was to identify ncRNAs in the etiology of MAFLD as a novel approach to the therapeutic targets. Methods. We collected human and mouse MAFLD gene expression datasets available in GEO. We performed pathway enrichment analysis of total mRNAs based on KEGG repository data to screen the most potential pathways in the liver of MAFLD human subjects and mice model, and analyzed pathway interconnections via ClueGO. Finally, we screened disease causality of the MAFLD ncRNAs, which were associated with PPARs, and then discussed the role of revealed ncRNAs in PPAR signaling and MAFLD. Results. We found 127 ncRNAs in MAFLD which 25 out of them were strongly validated before for regulation of PPARs. With a polypharmacology approach, we screened 51 ncRNAs which were causal to a subset of diseases related to MAFLD. Conclusion. This study revealed a subset of ncRNAs that could help in more clear and guided designation of preclinical and clinical studies to verify the therapeutic application of the revealed ncRNAs by manipulating the PPARs molecular mechanism in MAFLD.

Review Article

Impact of Phytochemicals on PPAR Receptors: Implications for Disease Treatments

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the ligand-dependent nuclear receptor family. PPARs have attracted wide attention as pharmacologic mediators to manage multiple diseases and their underlying signaling targets. They mediate a broad range of specific biological activities and multiple organ toxicity, including cellular differentiation, metabolic syndrome, cancer, atherosclerosis, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular diseases, and inflammation related to their up/downstream signaling pathways. Consequently, several types of selective PPAR ligands, such as fibrates and thiazolidinediones (TZDs), have been approved as their pharmacological agonists. Despite these advances, the use of PPAR agonists is known to cause adverse effects in various systems. Conversely, some naturally occurring PPAR agonists, including polyunsaturated fatty acids and natural endogenous PPAR agonists curcumin and resveratrol, have been introduced as safe agonists as a result of their clinical evidence or preclinical experiments. This review focuses on research on plant-derived active ingredients (natural phytochemicals) as potential safe and promising PPAR agonists. Moreover, it provides a comprehensive review and critique of the role of phytochemicals in PPARs-related diseases and provides an understanding of phytochemical-mediated PPAR-dependent and -independent cascades. The findings of this research will help to define the functions of phytochemicals as potent PPAR pharmacological agonists in underlying disease mechanisms and their related complications.

Research Article

GaitRec-Net: A Deep Neural Network for Gait Disorder Detection Using Ground Reaction Force

Walking (gait) irregularities and abnormalities are predictors and symptoms of disorder and disability. In the past, elaborate video (camera-based) systems, pressure mats, or a mix of the two has been used in clinical settings to monitor and evaluate gait. This article presents an artificial intelligence-based comprehensive investigation of ground reaction force (GRF) pattern to classify the healthy control and gait disorders using the large-scale ground reaction force. The used dataset comprised GRF measurements from different patients. The article includes machine learning- and deep learning-based models to classify healthy and gait disorder patients using ground reaction force. A deep learning-based architecture GaitRec-Net is proposed for this classification. The classification results were evaluated using various metrics, and each experiment was analysed using a fivefold cross-validation approach. Compared to machine learning classifiers, the proposed deep learning model is found better for feature extraction resulting in high accuracy of classification. As a result, the proposed framework presents a promising step in the direction of automatic categorization of abnormal gait pattern.

Research Article

Luteolin Pretreatment Attenuates Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Mice by Inhibiting Inflammation, Autophagy, and Apoptosis via the ERK/PPARα Pathway

Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a clinically significant process that frequently occurs in liver transplantation, partial hepatectomy, and hemorrhagic shock. The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of luteolin in hepatic IR injury and the underlying mechanism. BALB/c mice were randomly divided into six groups, including normal controls (NC), luteolin (50 mg/kg), sham procedure, IR+25 mg/kg luteolin, and IR+50 mg/kg luteolin group. Serum and tissue samples were collected at 6 and 24 h after reperfusion to assay liver enzymes, inflammatory factors, expression of proteins associated with apoptosis and autophagy, and factors associated with the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (ERK/PPARα) pathway. Luteolin preconditioning decreased hepatocyte injury caused by ischemia-reperfusion, downregulated inflammatory factors, and inhibited apoptosis and autophagy. Luteolin also inhibited ERK phosphorylation and activated PPARα.

Review Article

Liver Protective Effect of Fenofibrate in NASH/NAFLD Animal Models

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is initiated by excessive fat buildup in the liver, affecting around 35% of the world population. Various circumstances contribute to the initiation and progression of NAFLD, and it encompasses a wide range of disorders, from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and liver cancer. Although several treatments have been proposed, there is no definitive cure for NAFLD. In recent decades, several medications related to other metabolic disorders have been evaluated in preclinical studies and in clinical trials due to the correlation of NAFLD with other metabolic diseases. Fenofibrate is a fibrate drug approved for dyslipidemia that could be used for modulation of hepatic fat accumulation, targeting peroxisome proliferator-activator receptors, and de novo lipogenesis. This drug offers potential therapeutic efficacy for NAFLD due to its capacity to decrease the accumulation of hepatic lipids, as well as its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic properties. To better elucidate the pathophysiological processes underlying NAFLD, as well as to test therapeutic agents/interventions, experimental animal models have been extensively used. In this article, we first reviewed experimental animal models that have been used to evaluate the protective effects of fenofibrate on NAFLD/NASH. Next, we investigated the impact of fenofibrate on the hepatic microcirculation in NAFLD and then summarized the beneficial effects of fenofibrate, as compared to other drugs, for the treatment of NAFLD. Lastly, we discuss possible adverse side effects of fenofibrate on the liver.

Research Article

PPAR-γ Agonist Pioglitazone Restored Mouse Liver mRNA Expression of Clock Genes and Inflammation-Related Genes Disrupted by Reversed Feeding

Introduction. The master clock, which is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), harmonizes clock genes present in the liver to synchronize life rhythms and bioactivity with the surrounding environment. The reversed feeding disrupts the expression of clock genes in the liver. Recently, a novel role of PPAR-γ as a regulator in correlating circadian rhythm and metabolism was demonstrated. This study examined the influence of PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone (PG) on the mRNA expression profile of principle clock genes and inflammation-related genes in the mouse liver disrupted by reverse feeding. Methods. Mice were randomly assigned to daytime-feeding and nighttime-feeding groups. Mice in daytime-feeding groups received food from 7 AM to 7 PM, and mice in nighttime-feeding groups received food from 7 PM to 7 AM. PG was administered in the dose of 20 mg/kg per os as aqueous suspension 40 μl at 7 AM or 7 PM. Each group consisted of 12 animals. On day 8 of the feeding intervention, mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at noon (05 hours after light onset (HALO)) and midnight (HALO 17). Liver expressions of Bmal1, Clock, Rev-erb alpha, Cry1, Cry2, Per1, Per2, Cxcl5, Nrf2, and Ppar-γ were determined by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Liver expression of PPAR-γ, pNF-κB, and IL-6 was determined by Western blotting. Glucose, ceruloplasmin, total cholesterol, triglyceride concentrations, and ALT and AST activities were measured in sera by photometric methods. The null hypothesis tested was that PG and the time of its administration have no influence on the clock gene expression impaired by reverse feeding. Results. Administration of PG at 7 AM to nighttime-feeding mice did not reveal any influence on the expression of the clock or inflammation-related genes either at midnight or at noon. In the daytime-feeding group, PG intake at 7 PM led to an increase in Per2 and Rev-erb alpha mRNA at noon, an increase in Ppar-γ mRNA at midnight, and a decrease in Nfκb (p65) mRNA at noon. In general, PG administration at 7 PM slightly normalized the impaired expression of clock genes and increased anti-inflammatory potency impaired by reversed feeding. This pattern was supported by biochemical substrate levels—glucose, total cholesterol, ALT, and AST activities. The decrease in NF-κB led to the inhibition of serum ceruloplasmin levels as well as IL-6 in liver tissue. According to our data, PG intake at 7 PM exerts strong normalization of clock gene expression with a further increase in Nrf2 and, especially, Ppar-γ and PPAR-γ expression with inhibition of Nfκb and pNF-κB expression in daytime-feeding mice. These expression changes resulted in decreased hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, ALT, and AST activities. Thus, PG had a potent chronopharmacological effect when administered at 7 PM to daytime-feeding mice. Conclusions. Our study indicates that reversed feeding induced the disruption of mouse liver circadian expression pattern of clock genes accompanied by increasing Nfκb and pNF-κB and IL-6 expression and decreasing Nrf2 and PPAR-γ. Administration of PG restored the clock gene expression profile and decreased Nfκb, pNF-κB, and IL-6, as well as increased Nrf2, Ppar-γ, and PPAR-γ expression. PG intake at 7 PM was more effective than at 7 AM in reversed feeding mice.

PPAR Research
 Journal metrics
See full report
Acceptance rate23%
Submission to final decision68 days
Acceptance to publication24 days
CiteScore4.900
Journal Citation Indicator0.770
Impact Factor4.385
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Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2021, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.