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Redox Regulation of PPARγ in Polarized Macrophages
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) is a central mediator of cellular lipid metabolism and immune cell responses during inflammation. This is facilitated by its role as a transcription factor as well as a DNA-independent protein interaction partner. We addressed how the cellular redox milieu in the cytosol and the nucleus of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon-γ- (IFNγ-) and interleukin-4- (IL4-) polarized macrophages (MΦ) initiates posttranslational modifications of PPARγ, that in turn alter its protein function. Using the redox-sensitive GFP2 (roGFP2), we validated oxidizing and reducing conditions following classical and alternative activation of MΦ, while the redox status of PPARγ was determined via mass spectrometry. Cysteine residues located in the zinc finger regions (amino acid fragments AA 90-115, AA 116-130, and AA 160-167) of PPARγ were highly oxidized, accompanied by phosphorylation of serine 82 in response to LPS/IFNγ, whereas IL4-stimulation provoked minor serine 82 phosphorylation and less cysteine oxidation, favoring a reductive milieu. Mutating these cysteines to alanine to mimic a redox modification decreased PPARγ-dependent reporter gene transactivation supporting a functional shift of PPARγ associated with the MΦ phenotype. These data suggest distinct mechanisms for regulating PPARγ function based on the redox state of MΦ.
Integrating Literature-Based Knowledge Database and Expression Data to Explore Molecular Pathways Connecting PPARG and Myocardial Infarction
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) might play a protective role in the development of myocardial infarction (MI) with limited mechanisms identified. Genes associated with both PPARG and MI were extracted from Elsevier Pathway Studio to construct the initial network. The gene expression activity within the network was estimated through a mega-analysis with eight independent expression datasets derived from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) to build PPARG and MI connecting pathways. After that, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was conducted to explore the functional profile of the genes involved in the PPARG-driven network. PPARG demonstrated a significantly low expression in MI patients (; ). Consequently, PPARG could indicatively be promoting three MI inhibitors (e.g., SOD1, CAV1, and POU5F1) and three MI-downregulated markers (e.g., ALB, ACADM, and ADIPOR2), which were deactivated in MI cases (), and inhibit two MI-upregulated markers (RELA and MYD88), which showed increased expression levels in MI cases ( and 0.047, respectively). These eight genes were mainly enriched in nutrient- and cell metabolic-related pathways and functionally linked by GSEA and PPCN. Our results suggest that PPARG could protect the heart against both the development and progress of MI through the regulation of nutrient- and metabolic-related pathways.
PPARG Could Work as a Valid Therapeutic Strategy for the Treatment of Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Previous studies showed that PPAR-gamma (PPARG) ligands might serve as potential therapeutic agents for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, a few studies reported the specific relationship between PPARG and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Here, we made an effort to explore the relationship between PPARG and LSCC. First, we used mega-analysis and partial mega-analysis to analyze the effects of PPARG on LSCC by using 12 independent LSCC expression datasets (285 healthy controls and 375 LSCC cases). Then, literature-based molecular pathways between PPARG and LSCC were established. After that, a gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was conducted to study the functionalities of PPARG and PPARG-driven triggers within the molecular pathways. Finally, another mega-analysis was constructed to test the expression changes of PPARG and its driven targets. The partial mega-analysis showed a significant downregulated expression of PPARG in LSCC (, ). Twelve diagnostic markers and four prognostic markers were identified within multiple PPARG-LSCC regulatory pathways. Our results suggested that the activation of PPARG expression may inhibit the development and progression of LSCC through the regulation of LSCC upstream regulators and downstream marker genes, which were involved in tumor cell proliferation and protein polyubiquitination/ubiquitination.
Loss of Hepatocyte-Specific PPARγ Expression Ameliorates Early Events of Steatohepatitis in Mice Fed the Methionine and Choline-Deficient Diet
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide. To date, there is not a specific and approved treatment for NAFLD yet, and therefore, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms that lead to the progression of NAFLD. Methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diets are used to reproduce some features of NAFLD in mice. MCD diets increase the expression of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, Pparg) and the fatty acid translocase (CD36, Cd36) which could increase hepatic fatty acid uptake and promote the progression of NAFLD in mice and humans. In this study, we assessed the contribution of hepatocyte-specific PPARγ and CD36 expression to the development of early events induced by the MCD diet. Specifically, mice with adult-onset, hepatocyte-specific PPARγ knockout with and without hepatocyte CD36 overexpression were fed a MCD diet for three weeks. Hepatocyte PPARγ and/or CD36 expression did not contribute to the development of steatosis induced by the MCD diet. However, the expression of inflammatory and fibrogenic genes seems to be dependent on the expression of hepatocyte PPARγ and CD36. The expression of PPARγ and CD36 in hepatocytes may be relevant in the regulation of some features of NAFLD and steatohepatitis.
PPAR-Gamma Agonist Pioglitazone Reduced CD68+ but Not CD163+ Macrophage Dermal Infiltration in Obese Psoriatic Patients
Background. Macrophages are of great importance in the development of obesity and psoriasis. Signaling via PPAR-γ in certain macrophage populations is associated with M2-like features and anti-inflammatory profile. In this research, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory action of pioglitazone by the immunohistochemical study of M1 and M2 macrophages in psoriasis-affected skin in obese patients. Methods. We used immunohistochemistry to characterize CD68+ and CD163+ macrophages and pathomorphological description of skin biopsy, obtained from 6 obese psoriatic patients before and after treatment with 15, 30, and 45 mg pioglitazone, once a day during 6 months. Two patients with conventional therapy and without pioglitazone served as control. Results. Generally, CD163+ cell quantities in psoriasis-affected skin significantly dominated over CD68+ before and after all treatment regiments. Among patients who received pioglitazone, some of them clearly responded to treatment from lowest to highest doses by decreasing CD68+ cells. In the group with 30 mg pioglitazone regiment, we detected a significant reduction of CD68+ cells in dermal infiltrates: CI 95% (16–32) before versus CI 95% (2–7) after treatment. Pioglitazone dose escalation led to certain normalization of skin morphology. Conclusion. The immunohistochemical study allows us to show the anti-inflammatory effect of pioglitazone in psoriatic obese patients, which can be mediated by reducing the number of СD68+ macrophages, but not СD163+ macrophages, in the affected dermis.
PPARG Drives Molecular Networks as an Inhibitor for the Pathologic Development and Progression of Lung Adenocarcinoma
Previous studies showed that low PPARG expression was associated with poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma (LA) with limited mechanisms identified. We first conducted a large-scale literature-based data mining to identify potential molecular pathways where PPARG could exert influence on the pathological development of LA. Then a mega-analysis using 13 independent LA expression datasets and a Pathway Enrichment Analysis (PEA) was conducted to study the gene expression levels and the functionalities of PPARG and the PPARG-driven triggers within the molecular pathways. Finally, a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was established to reveal the functional connection between PPARG and its driven molecules. We identified 25 PPARG-driven molecule triggers forming multiple LA-regulatory pathways. Mega-analysis using 13 LA datasets supported these pathways and confirmed the downregulation of PPARG in the case of LA (). Results from the PEA and PPI analysis suggested that PPARG might inhibit the development of LA through the regulation of tumor cell proliferation and transmission-related molecules, including an LA tumor cell suppressor MIR145. Our results suggested that increased expression of PPARG could drive multiple molecular triggers against the pathologic development and prognosis of LA, indicating PPARG as a valuable therapeutic target for LA treatment.