Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
PPAR Research
Volume 2008, Article ID 527048, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2008/527048
Review Article

PPAR Action in Human Placental Development and Pregnancy and Its Complications

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA

Received 2 September 2007; Accepted 13 November 2007

Academic Editor: P. Froment

Copyright © 2008 Fritz Wieser et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. Rizzo and S. Fiorucci, “PPARs and other nuclear receptors in inflammation,” Current Opinion in Pharmacology, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 421–427, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. A. Margeli, G. Kouraklis, and S. Theocharis, “Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) ligands and angiogenesis,” Angiogenesis, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 165–169, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. W. T. Schaiff, Y. Barak, and Y. Sadovsky, “The pleiotropic function of PPARγ in the placenta,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 249, no. 1-2, pp. 10–15, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. P. Froment, F. Gizard, D. Defever, B. Staels, J. Dupont, and P. Monget, “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in reproductive tissues: from gametogenesis to parturition,” Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 189, no. 2, pp. 199–209, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. J. Berger and D. E. Moller, “The mechanisms of action of PPARs,” Annual Review of Medicine, vol. 53, pp. 409–435, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. S. Kersten, B. Desvergne, and W. Wahli, “Roles of PPARs in health and disease,” Nature, vol. 405, no. 6785, pp. 421–424, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. M. J. Holness, G. K. Greenwood, N. D. Smith, and M. C. Sugden, “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and glucocorticoids interactively regulate insulin secretion during pregnancy,” Diabetes, vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 3501–3508, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. K. Nadra, S. I. Anghel, E. Joye et al., “Differentiation of trophoblast giant cells and their metabolic functions are dependent on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ß/d,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 3266–3281, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. G. Krey, A. Mahfoudi, and W. Wahli, “Functional interactions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, retinoid-X receptor, and Sp1 in the transcriptional regulation of the acyl- coenzyme-A oxidase promoter,” Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 219–231, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. Y. Guan, Y. Zhang, L. Davis, and M. D. Breyer, “Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in urinary tract of rabbits and humans,” American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology, vol. 273, no. 6, pp. F1013–F1022, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  11. T. Fournier, V. Tsatsaris, K. Handschuh, and D. Evain-Brion, “PPARs and the placenta,” Placenta, vol. 28, no. 2-3, pp. 65–76, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. O. Braissant, F. Foufelle, C. Scotto, M. Dauça, and W. Wahli, “Differential expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs): tissue distribution of PPAR-α, -β, and -γ in the adult rat,” Endocrinology, vol. 137, no. 1, pp. 354–366, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. L. Fajas, J.-C. Fruchart, and J. Auwerx, “PPARγ3 mRNA: a distinct PPARγ mRNA subtype transcribed from an independent promoter,” FEBS Letters, vol. 438, no. 1-2, pp. 55–60, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. P. Peraldi, M. Xu, and B. M. Spiegelman, “Thiazolidinediones block tumor necrosis factor-α-induced inhibition of insulin signaling,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 100, no. 7, pp. 1863–1869, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. Y. Barak, M. C. Nelson, E. S. Ong et al., “PPAR? is required for placental, cardiac, and adipose tissue development,” Molecular Cell, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 585–595, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. X. Zhang and H. A. Young, “PPAR and immune system—what do we know?” International Immunopharmacology, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 1029–1044, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. E. Lord, B. D. Murphy, J. A. Desmarais, S. Ledoux, D. Beaudry, and M.-F. Palin, “Modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ and γ transcripts in swine endometrial tissue during early gestation,” Reproduction, vol. 131, no. 5, pp. 929–942, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. H. Higashiyama, A. N. Billin, Y. Okamoto, M. Kinoshita, and S. Asano, “Expression profiling of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPAR-δ) in mouse tissues using tissue microarray,” Histochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 127, no. 5, pp. 485–494, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. A. Chawla, Y. Barak, L. Nagy, D. Liao, P. Tontonoz, and R. M. Evans, “PPAR-γ dependent and independent effects on macrophage-gene expression in lipid metabolism and inflammation,” Nature Medicine, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 48–52, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. D. K. Krämer, L. Al-Khalili, B. Guigas, Y. Leng, P. M. Garcia-Roves, and A. Krook, “Role of AMP kinase and PPARδ in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism in human skeletal muscle,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 282, no. 27, pp. 19313–19320, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. M. Adjuik., A. Babiker, P. Garner, P. Olliaro, W. Taylor, and N. White, “Artesunate combinations for treatment of malaria: meta-analysis,” The Lancet, vol. 363, no. 9402, pp. 9–17, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. K. S. Park, T. P. Ciaraldi, L. Abrams-Carter, S. Mudaliar, S. E. Nikoulina, and R. R. Henry, “PPAR-γ gene expression is elevated in skeletal muscle of obese and type II diabetic subjects,” Diabetes, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 1230–1234, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. P. Imbeault, H. Vidal, A. Tremblay et al., “Age-related differences in messenger ribonucleic acid expression of key proteins involved in adipose cell differentiation and metabolism,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 828–833, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. M. Iemitsu, T. Miyauchi, S. Maeda et al., “Aging-induced decrease in the PPAR-a level in hearts is improved by exercise training,” American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 283, no. 5, pp. H1750–H1760, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  25. Q. N. Diep and E. L. Schiffrin, “Increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and -γ in blood vessels of spontaneously hypertensive rats,” Hypertension, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 249–254, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  26. O. Mezei, W. J. Banz, R. W. Steger, M. R. Peluso, T. A. Winters, and N. Shay, “Soy isoflavones exert antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects through the PPAR pathways in obese zucker rats and murine RAW 264.7 cells,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 133, no. 5, pp. 1238–1243, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  27. A. Vidal-Puig, M. Jimenez-Liñan, B. B. Lowell et al., “Regulation of PPAR ? gene expression by nutrition and obesity in rodents,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 97, no. 11, pp. 2553–2561, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. B. Delage, C. Bairras, B. Buaud, V. Pallet, and P. Cassand, “A high-fat diet generates alterations in nuclear receptor expression: prevention by vitamin A and links with cyclooxygenase-2 and β-catenin,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 116, no. 6, pp. 839–846, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. J. P. Bastard, B. Hainque, E. Dusserre et al., “Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-?, leptin and tumor necrosis factor-a mRNA expression during very low calorie diet in subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese women,” Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 92–98, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. A. Petridou, S. Tsalouhidou, G. Tsalis, T. Schulz, H. Michna, and V. Mougios, “Long-term exercise increases the DNA binding activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in rat adipose tissue,” Metabolism, vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 1029–1036, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. T. Fritz, D. K. Krämer, H. K. Karlsson et al., “Low-intensity exercise increases skeletal muscle protein expression of PPARd and UCP3 in type 2 diabetic patients,” Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 492–498, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. A. J. Vidal-Puig, R. V. Considine, M. Jimenez-Liñan et al., “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gene expression in human tissues. Effects of obesity, weight loss, and regulation by insulin and glucocorticoids,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 99, no. 10, pp. 2416–2422, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. D. B. Savage, G. D. Tan, C. L. Acerini et al., “Human metabolic syndrome resulting from dominant-negative mutations in the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?,” Diabetes, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 910–917, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. S. Y. Ding, Z. F. Shen, Y. T. Chen, S. J. Sun, Q. Liu, and M. Z. Xie, “Pioglitazone can ameliorate insulin resistance in low-dose streptozotocin and high sucrose-fat diet induced obese rats,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 575–580, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. R. Jaziri, S. Lobbens, R. Aubert et al., “The PPARG Pro12Ala polymorphism is associated with a decreased risk of developing hyperglycemia over 6 years and combines with the effect of the APM1 G-11391A single nucleotide polymorphism,” Diabetes, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 1157–1162, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. I. Ostlund, B. Haglund, and U. Hanson, “Gestational diabetes and preeclampsia,” European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 12–16, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. I. Delbaere, H. Verstraelen, S. Goetgeluk, G. Martens, G. De Backer, and M. Temmerman, “Pregnancy outcome in primiparae of advanced maternal age,” European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology & Reproductive Biology, vol. 135, no. 1, pp. 41–46, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. A. O. Odibo, D. Nelson, D. M. Stamilio, H. M. Sehdev, and G. A. Macones, “Advanced maternal age is an independent risk factor for intrauterine growth restriction,” American Journal of Perinatology, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 325–328, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. B. M. Sibai, M. Ewell, R. J. Levine et al., “Risk factors associated with preeclampsia in healthy nulliparous women. The calcium for preeclampsia prevention (CPEP) study group,” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 177, no. 5, pp. 1003–1010, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. R. Artal, R. B. Catanzaro, J. A. Gavard, D. J. Mostello, and J. C. Friganza, “A lifestyle intervention of weight-gain restriction: diet and exercise in obese women with gestational diabetes mellitus,” Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 596–601, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. A. F. Saftlas, N. Logsden-Sackett, W. Wang, R. Woolson, and M. B. Bracken, “Work, leisure-time physical activity, and risk of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 160, no. 8, pp. 758–765, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. T. O. Scholl, M. Leskiw, X. Chen, M. Sims, and T. P. Stein, “Oxidative stress, diet, and the etiology of preeclampsia,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 81, no. 6, pp. 1390–1396, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  43. C. Zhang, C. G. Solomon, J. E. Manson, and F. B. Hu, “A prospective study of pregravid physical activity and sedentary behaviors in relation to the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 166, no. 5, pp. 543–548, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. T. K. Sorensen, M. A. Williams, I. M. Lee, E. E. Dashow, M. L. Thompson, and D. A. Luthy, “Recreational physical activity during pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia,” Hypertension, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1273–1280, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. M. I. Cedergren, “Maternal morbid obesity and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 219–224, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  46. T. E. O'Brien, J. G. Ray, and W. S. Chan, “Maternal body mass index and the risk of preeclampsia: a systematic overview,” Epidemiology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 368–374, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. H. S. Ros, S. Cnattingius, and L. Lipworth, “Comparison of risk factors for preeclampsia and gestational hypertension in a population-based cohort study,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 147, no. 11, pp. 1062–1070, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  48. N. J. Sebire, M. Jolly, J. P. Harris et al., “Maternal obesity and pregnancy outcome: a study of 287 213 pregnancies in London,” International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 1175–1182, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. L. M. Bodnar, J. M. Catov, M. A. Klebanoff, R. B. Ness, and J. M. Roberts, “Prepregnancy body mass index and the occurrence of severe hypertensive disorders of pregnancy,” Epidemiology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 234–239, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. J. G. Ray, M. J. Vermeulen, M. J. Schull, S. McDonald, and D. A. Redelmeier, “Metabolic syndrome and the risk of placental dysfunction,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 1095–1101, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  51. M. Wolf, L. Sandler, K. Muñoz, K. Hsu, J. L. Ecker, and R. Thadhani, “First trimester insulin resistance and subsequent preeclampsia: a prospective study,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 1563–1568, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. L. M. Bodnar, G. Tang, R. B. Ness, G. Harger, and J. M. Roberts, “Periconceptional multivitamin use reduces the risk of preeclampsia,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 164, no. 5, pp. 470–477, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. C. Zhang, M. B. Schulze, C. G. Solomon, and F. B. Hu, “A prospective study of dietary patterns, meat intake and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus,” Diabetologia, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 2604–1613, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. S. C. Kalhan, “Protein metabolism in pregnancy,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 71, no. 5, supplement, pp. 1249S–1255S, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  55. E. Sivan and G. Boden, “Free fatty acids, insulin resistance, and pregnancy,” Current Diabetes Reports, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 319–322, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. J. M. Potter and P. J. Nestel, “The hyperlipidemia of pregnancy in normal and complicated pregnancies,” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 133, no. 2, pp. 165–170, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  57. J. Bonnar, L. Daly, and B. L. Sheppard, “Changes in the fibrinolytic system during pregnancy,” Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 221–229, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. D. M. Sherer and O. Abulafia, “Angiogenesis during implantation, and placental and early embryonic development,” Placenta, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. A. Yessoufou, A. Hichami, P. Besnard, K. Moutairou, and N. A. Khan, “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α deficiency increases the risk of maternal abortion and neonatal mortality in murine pregnancy with or without diabetes mellitus: modulation of T cell differentiation,” Endocrinology, vol. 147, no. 9, pp. 4410–4418, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. Y. Barak, D. Liao, W. He et al., “Effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor d on placentation, adiposity, and colorectal cancer,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 303–308, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. N. Kubota, Y. Terauchi, H. Miki et al., “PPAR? mediates high-fat diet-induced adipocyte hypertrophy and insulin resistance,” Molecular Cell, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 597–609, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  62. Y.-J. Zhu, S. E. Crawford, V. Stellmach et al., “Coactivator PRIP, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-interacting protein, is a modulator of placental, cardiac, hepatic, and embryonic development,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 278, no. 3, pp. 1986–1990, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. P. Antonson, G. U. Schuster, L. Wang et al., “Inactivation of the nuclear receptor coactivator RAP250 in mice results in placental vascular dysfunction,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1260–1268, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  64. V. Sapin, P. Dollé, C. Hindelang, P. Kastner, and P. Chambon, “Defects of the chorioallantoic placenta in mouse RXRα null fetuses,” Developmental Biology, vol. 191, no. 1, pp. 29–41, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  65. B. Sibai, G. Dekker, and M. Kupferminc, “Pre-eclampsia,” The Lancet, vol. 365, no. 9461, pp. 785–799, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  66. J. M. Roberts and C. W. G. Redman, “Pre-eclampsia: more than pregnancy-induced hypertension,” The Lancet, vol. 341, no. 8858, pp. 1447–1451, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  67. G. T. R. Manten, M. J. Sikkema, H. A. M. Voorbij, G. H. A. Visser, H. W. Bruinse, and A. Franx, “Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women with a history of pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction,” Hypertension in Pregnancy, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 39–50, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  68. V. A. Rodie, D. J. Freeman, N. Sattar, and I. A. Greer, “Pre-eclampsia and cardiovascular disease: metabolic syndrome of pregnancy?” Atherosclerosis, vol. 175, no. 2, pp. 189–202, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  69. J. Newstead, P. von Dadelszen, and L. A. Magee, “Preeclampsia and future cardiovascular risk,” Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 283–294, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  70. R. J. Kaaja and I. A. Greer, “Manifestations of chronic disease during pregnancy,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 294, no. 21, pp. 2751–2757, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. I. A. Brosens, P. De Sutter, T. Hamerlynck et al., “Endometriosis is associated with a decreased risk of pre-eclampsia,” Human Reproduction, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1725–1729, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. F. Xue and K. B. Michels, “Intrauterine factors and risk of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of current evidence,” Lancet Oncology, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1088–1100, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. J. Vamecq and N. Latruffe, “Medical significance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors,” The Lancet, vol. 354, no. 9173, pp. 141–148, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. J. M. Lehmann, L. B. Moore, T. A. Smith-Oliver, W. O. Wilkison, T. M. Willson, and S. A. Kliewer, “An antidiabetic thiazolidinedione is a high affinity ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ),” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 270, no. 22, pp. 12953–12956, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. H. Vosper, G. A. Khoudoli, T. L. Graham, and C. N. Palmer, “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists, hyperlipidaemia, and atherosclerosis,” Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 47–62, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  76. C. Chambrier, J.-P. Bastard, J. Rieusset et al., “Eicosapentaenoic acid induces mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?,” Obesity Research, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 518–525, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  77. S. A. Kliewer, J. M. Lenhard, T. M. Willson, I. Patel, D. C. Morris, and J. M. Lehmann, “A prostaglandin J2 metabolite binds peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and promotes adipocyte differentiation,” Cell, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 813–819, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. G. Chinetti, J.-C. Fruchart, and B. Staels, “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs): nuclear receptors at the crossroads between lipid metabolism and inflammation,” Inflammation Research, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 497–505, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  79. L. Waite, E. C. Person, Y. Zhou, K.-H. Lim, T. S. Scanlan, and R. N. Taylor, “Placental peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ is up-regulated by pregnancy serum,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 85, no. 10, pp. 3808–3814, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  80. Q. Wang, H. Fujii, and G. T. Knipp, “Expression of PPAR and RXR isoforms in the developing rat and human term placentas,” Placenta, vol. 23, no. 8-9, pp. 661–671, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  81. A. Tarrade, R. Lai Kuen, A. Malassiné et al., “Characterization of human villous and extravillous trophoblasts isolated from first trimester placenta,” Laboratory Investigation, vol. 81, no. 9, pp. 1199–1211, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  82. T. Fournier, L. Pavan, A. Tarrade et al., “The role of PPAR-?/RXR-a heterodimers in the regulation of human trophoblast invasion,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 973, pp. 26–30, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  83. A. Tarrade, K. Schoonjans, J. Guibourdenche et al., “PPAR?/RXRa heterodimers are involved in human CGß synthesis and human trophoblast differentiation,” Endocrinology, vol. 142, no. 10, pp. 4504–4514, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  84. R. L. Schild, W. T. Schaiff, M. G. Carlson, E. J. Cronbach, D. M. Nelson, and Y. Sadovsky, “The activity of PPARγ in primary human trophoblasts is enhanced by oxidized lipids,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 1105–1110, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. M. Lappas, M. Permezel, and G. E. Rice, “Leptin and adiponectin stimulate the release of proinflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins from human placenta and maternal adipose tissue via nuclear factor-κB, peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ and extracellularly regulated kinase 1/2,” Endocrinology, vol. 146, no. 8, pp. 3334–3342, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  86. W. T. Schaiff, I. Bildirici, M. Cheong, P. L. Chern, D. M. Nelson, and Y. Sadovsky, “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and retinoid X receptor signaling regulate fatty acid uptake by primary human placental Trophoblasts,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 90, no. 7, pp. 4267–4275, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  87. T. Shalom-Barak, J. M. Nicholas, Y. Wang et al., “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? controls Muc1 transcription in trophoblasts,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 24, no. 24, pp. 10661–10669, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  88. R. Asami-Miyagishi, S. Iseki, M. Usui, K. Uchida, H. Kubo, and I. Morita, “Expression and function of PPARγ in rat placental development,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 315, no. 2, pp. 497–501, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  89. E. Capobianco, A. Jawerbaum, M. C. Romanini et al., “15-deoxy-?12,14-prostaglandin J2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) levels in term placental tissues from control and diabetic rats: modulatory effects of a PPAR? agonist on nitridergic and lipid placental metabolism,” Reproduction, Fertility and Development, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 423–433, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  90. M. Lappas, M. Permezel, H. M. Georgiou, and G. E. Rice, “Regulation of proinflammatory cytokines in human gestational tissues by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ: effect of 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 and troglitazone,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 87, no. 10, pp. 4667–4672, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  91. K. W. Marvin, R. L. Eykholt, J. A. Keelan, T. A. Sato, and M. D. Mitchell, “The 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 receptor, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is expressed in human gestational tissues and is functionally active in JEG3 choriocarcinoma cells,” Placenta, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 436–440, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  92. L. R. Dunn-Albanese, W. E. Ackerman IV, Y. Xie, J. D. Iams, and D. A. Kniss, “Reciprocal expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and cyclooxygenase-2 in human term parturition,” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 190, no. 3, pp. 809–816, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  93. E. B. E. Berry, R. Eykholt, R. J. A. Helliwell, R. S. Gilmour, M. D. Mitchell, and K. W. Marvin, “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor isoform expression changes in human gestational tissues with labor at term,” Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 1586–1590, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  94. O. Wendling, P. Chambon, and M. Mark, “Retinoid X receptors are essential for early mouse development and placentogenesis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 547–551, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  95. L. L. H. Peeters, J.-L. Vigne, M. K. Tee, D. Zhao, L. Waite, and R. N. Taylor, “PPARγ represses VEGF expression in human endometrial cells: implications for uterine angiogenesis,” Angiogenesis, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 373–379, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  96. H. Bamba, S. Ota, A. Kato, C. Kawamoto, and K. Fujiwara, “Prostaglandins up-regulate vascular endothelial growth factor production through distinct pathways in differentiated U937 cells,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 273, no. 2, pp. 485–491, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  97. V. Chintalgattu, G. S. Harris, S. M. Akula, and L. C. Katwa, “PPAR-γ agonists induce the expression of VEGF and its receptors in cultured cardiac myofibroblasts,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 140–150, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  98. K. Yamakawa, M. Hosoi, H. Koyama et al., “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonists increase vascular endothelial growth factor expression in human vascular smooth muscle cells,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 271, no. 3, pp. 571–574, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  99. K. Handschuh, J. Guibourdenche, M. Guesnon, I. Laurendeau, D. Evain-Brion, and T. Fournier, “Modulation of PAPP-A expression by PPARγ in human first trimester trophoblast,” Placenta, vol. 27, 1, pp. 127–134, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  100. B. M. Forman, P. Tontonoz, J. Chen, R. P. Brun, B. M. Spiegelman, and R. M. Evans, “15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 is a ligand for the adipocyte determination factor PPARγ,” Cell, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 803–812, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  101. R. L. Schild, C. M. Sonnenberg-Hirche, W. T. Schaiff, I. Bildirici, D. M. Nelson, and Y. Sadovsky, “The kinase p38 regulates peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ in human trophoblasts,” Placenta, vol. 27, no. 2-3, pp. 191–199, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  102. S. S.-T. Lee and F. J. Gonzalez, “Targeted disruption of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α gene, PPARα,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 804, no. 1, pp. 524–529, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  103. G. B. Dealtry, M. K. O'Farrell, and N. Fernandez, “The Th2 cytokine environment of the placenta,” International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, vol. 123, no. 2, pp. 107–119, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  104. J. C. Huang, W. S. Wun, J. S. Goldsby, I. C. Wun, D. Noorhasan, and K. K. Wu, “Stimulation of embryo hatching and implantation by prostacyclin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ activation: implication in IVF,” Human Reproduction, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 807–814, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  105. H. Lim and S. K. Dey, “PPARδ functions as a prostacyclin receptor in blastocyst implantation,” Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 137–142, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  106. M. Lappas, M. Permezel, H. M. Georgiou, and G. E. Rice, “Nuclear factor κ B regulation of proinflammatory cytokines in human gestational tissues in vitro,” Biology of Reproduction, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 668–673, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  107. S. A. Törnblom, F. A. Patel, B. Byström et al., “15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase and cyclooxygenase 2 messenger ribonucleic acid expression and immunohistochemical localization in human cervical tissue during term and preterm labor,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 2909–2915, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  108. M. Lappas, M. Permezel, and G. E. Rice, “15-deoxy-Δ12,14-rostaglandin J2 and troglitazone regulation of the release of phospholipid metabolites, inflammatory cytokines and proteases from guman gestational tissues,” Placenta, vol. 27, no. 11-12, pp. 1060–1072, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  109. E. T. McKinney, R. Shouri, R. S. Hunt, R. A. Ahokas, and B. M. Sibai, “Plasma, urinary, and salivary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α levels in normotensive and preeclamptic pregnancies,” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 183, no. 4, pp. 874–877, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  110. D. B. Klinkner, H. J. Lim, E. Y. Strawn Jr., K. T. Oldham, and T. L. Sander, “An in vivo murine model of rosiglitazone use in pregnancy,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 86, no. 4, supplement 1, pp. 1074–1079, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  111. L. Waite, R. E. Louie, and R. N. Taylor, “Circulating activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are reduced in preeclamptic pregnancy,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 620–626, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  112. E. C. Tok, D. Ertunc, O. Bilgin, E. M. Erdal, M. Kaplanoglu, and S. Dilek, “PPAR-γ2 Pro12Ala polymorphism is associated with weight gain in women with gestational diabetes mellitus,” European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology & Reproductive Biology, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 25–30, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  113. A. Jawerbaum, E. Capobianco, C. Pustovrh et al., “Influence of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? activation by its endogenous ligand 15-deoxy?12,14 prostaglandin J2 on nitric oxide production in term placental tissues from diabetic women,” Molecular Human Reproduction, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 671–676, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  114. L. Capparuccia, D. Marzioni, A. Giordano et al., “PPAR? expression in normal human placenta, hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma,” Molecular Human Reproduction, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 574–579, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  115. V. A. Rodie, A. Young, F. Jordan, N. Sattar, I. A. Greer, and D. J. Freeman, “Human placental peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ and γ expression in healthy pregnancy and in preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction,” Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 320–329, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  116. A. Meirhaeghe, C. A. G. Boreham, L. J. Murray et al., “A possible role for the PPARG Pro12Ala polymorphism in preterm birth,” Diabetes, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 494–498, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  117. J. R. Higgins and M. de Swiet, “Blood-pressure measurement and classification in pregnancy,” The Lancet, vol. 357, no. 9250, pp. 131–135, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  118. A. P. Mackay, C. J. Berg, and H. K. Atrash, “Pregnancy-related mortality from preeclampsia and eclampsia,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 97, no. 4, pp. 533–538, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  119. R. N. Taylor, C. J. M. de Groot, Y. K. Cho, and K.-H. Lim, “Circulating factors as markers and mediators of endothelial cell dysfunction in preeclampsia,” Seminars in Reproductive Endocrinology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 17–31, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  120. Y. Hamai, T. Fujii, T. Yamashita et al., “Evidence for an elevation in serum interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-a levels before the clinical manifestations of preeclampsia,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 89–93, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  121. K.-A. Wathén, E. Tuutti, U.-H. Stenman et al., “Maternal serum-soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 in early pregnancy ending in preeclampsia or intrauterine growth retardation,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 180–184, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  122. S.-M. Yie, L.-H. Li, Y.-M. Li, and C. Librach, “HLA-G protein concentrations in maternal serum and placental tissue are decreased in preeclampsia,” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 191, no. 2, pp. 525–529, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  123. R. Thadhani, W. P. Mutter, M. Wolf et al., “First trimester placental growth factor and soluble FMS-like tyrosine kinase 1 and risk for preeclampsia,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 770–775, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  124. D. V. Coonrod, D. E. Hickok, K. Zu, T. R. Easterling, and J. R. Daling, “Risk factors for preeclampsia in twin pregnancies: a population-based cohort study,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 85, no. 5, part 1, pp. 645–650, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  125. M. J. McMahon, C. V. Ananth, and R. M. Liston, “Gestational diabetes mellitus: risk factors, obstetric complications and infant outcomes,” Journal of Reproductive Medicine for the Obstetrician and Gynecologist, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 372–378, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  126. M. Tanaka, G. Jaamaa, M. Kaiser et al., “Racial disparity in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in New York state: a 10-year longitudinal population-based study,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 163–170, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  127. B. A. Beamer, C.-J. Yen, R. E. Andersen et al., “Association of the Pro12Ala variant in the peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor-?2 gene with obesity in two Caucasian populations,” Diabetes, vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 1806–1808, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  128. S. J. Hasstedt, Q.-F. Ren, K. Teng, and S. C. Elbein, “Effect of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2 Pro12Ala variant on obesity, glucose homeostasis, and blood pressure in members of familial type 2 diabetic kindreds,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 536–541, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  129. W.-D. Li, J. H. Lee, and R. A. Price, “The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 Pro12Ala mutation is associated with early onset extreme obesity and reduced fasting glucose,” Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 159–161, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  130. S. S. Deeb, L. Fajas, M. Nemoto et al., “A Pro12Ala substitution in PPAR?2 associated with decreased receptor activity, lower body mass index and improved insulin sensitivity,” Nature Genetics, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 284–287, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  131. J. Laasanen, S. Heinonen, M. Hiltunen, A. Mannermaa, and M. Laakso, “Polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ gene in women with preeclampsia,” Early Human Development, vol. 69, no. 1-2, pp. 77–82, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  132. C. A. Hubel, “Oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia,” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 222, no. 3, pp. 222–235, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  133. B. W. Arbogast, S. C. Leeper, R. D. Merrick, K. E. Olive, and R. N. Taylor, “Which plasma factors bring about disturbance of endothelial function in pre-eclampsia?” The Lancet, vol. 343, no. 8893, pp. 340–341, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  134. C. W. G. Redman and I. L. Sargent, “Pre-eclampsia, the placenta and the maternal systemic inflammatory response—a review,” Placenta, vol. 24, 1, pp. S21–S27, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  135. M. J. Reginato, S. L. Krakow, S. T. Bailey, and M. A. Lazar, “Prostaglandins promote and block adipogenesis through opposing effects on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 273, no. 4, pp. 1855–1858, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  136. P. L. Ogburn Jr., S. B. Johnson, P. P. Williams, and R. T. Holman, “Levels of free fatty acids and arachidonic acid in pregnancy and labor,” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 943–949, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  137. P. L. Ogburn Jr., P. P. Williams, S. B. Johnson, and R. T. Holman, “Serum arachidonic acid levels in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies,” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 5–9, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  138. C. J. M. de Groot, J. T. Murai, J.-L. Vigne, and R. N. Taylor, “Eicosanoid secretion by human endothelial cells exposed to normal pregnancy and preeclampsia plasma in vitro,” Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 91–97, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  139. D. Hornung, I. P. Ryan, V. A. Chao, J.-L. Vigne, E. D. Schriock, and R. N. Taylor, “Immunolocalization and regulation of the chemokine RANTES in human endometrial and endometriosis tissues and cells,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 1621–1628, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  140. S. Blackburn and D. Loper, Maternal Fetal and Neonatal Physiology: A Clinical Perspective, Harcourt Brace Jovanovic, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1992.
  141. W. W. Hay Jr., “Placental transport of nutrients to the fetus,” Hormone Research, vol. 42, no. 4-5, pp. 215–222, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  142. L. Jovanovic and D. J. Pettitt, “Gestational diabetes mellitus,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 286, no. 20, pp. 2516–2518, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  143. C. B. Rudra, T. K. Sorensen, W. M. Leisenring, E. Dashow, and M. A. Williams, “Weight characteristics and height in relation to risk of gestational diabetes mellitus,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 165, no. 3, pp. 302–308, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  144. F. Galtier-Dereure, C. Boegner, and J. Bringer, “Obesity and pregnancy: complications and cost,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 71, no. 5, supplement, pp. 1242S–1248S, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  145. P. M. Catalano, “Increasing maternal obesity and weight gain during pregnancy: the obstetric problems of plentitude,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 743–744, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  146. C. J. P. Jones and H. Fox, “Placental changes in gestational diabetes. An ultrastructural study,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 274–280, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  147. A. Åberg, H. Rydhstroem, and A. Frid, “Impaired glucose tolerance associated with adverse pregnancy outcome: a population-based study in southern Sweden,” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 184, no. 2, pp. 77–83, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  148. D. B. Carr, K. M. Utzschneider, R. L. Hull et al., “Gestational diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in women with a family history of type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 2078–2083, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  149. H. Lee, H. C. Jang, H. K. Park, and N. H. Cho, “Early manifestation of cardiovascular disease risk factors in offspring of mothers with previous history of gestational diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 238–245, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  150. M. Morifuji, C. Sanbongi, and K. Sugiura, “Dietary soya protein intake and exercise training have an additive effect on skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation enzyme activities and mRNA levels in rats,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 469–475, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  151. C. Zhang, S. Liu, C. G. Solomon, and F. B. Hu, “Dietary fiber intake, dietary glycemic load, and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes Care, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 2223–2230, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  152. E. Oken, Y. Ning, S. L. Rifas-Shiman, J. S. Radesky, J. W. Rich-Edwards, and M. W. Gillman, “Associations of physical activity and inactivity before and during pregnancy with glucose tolerance,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 108, no. 5, pp. 1200–1207, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  153. T. L. Weissgerber, L. A. Wolfe, G. A. L. Davies, and M. F. Mottola, “Exercise in the prevention and treatment of maternal-fetal disease: a review of the literature,” Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 661–674, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  154. H. Leipold, M. Knoefler, C. Gruber, A. Huber, P. Haslinger, and C. Worda, “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α gene variations are not associated with gestational diabetes mellitus,” Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 104–107, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  155. S. Fukuen, M. Iwaki, A. Yasui, M. Makishima, M. Matsuda, and I. Shimomura, “Sulfonylurea agents exhibit peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonistic activity,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 280, no. 25, pp. 23653–23659, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  156. O. Langer, D. L. Conway, M. D. Berkus, E. M.-J. Xenakis, and O. Gonzales, “A comparison of glyburide and insulin in women with gestational diabetes mellitus,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 343, no. 16, pp. 1134–1138, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  157. C. Ferretti, L. Bruni, V. Dangles-Marie, A. P. Pecking, and D. Bellet, “Molecular circuits shared by placental and cancer cells, and their implications in the proliferative, invasive and migratory capacities of trophoblasts,” Human Reproduction Update, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 121–141, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  158. D. P. Hewitt, P. J. Mark, and B. J. Waddell, “Placental expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in rat pregnancy and the effect of increased glucocorticoid exposure,” Biology of Reproduction, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 23–28, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  159. W. T. Schaiff, F. F. Knapp Jr., Y. Barak, T. Biron-Shental, D. M. Nelson, and Y. Sadovsky, “Ligand-activated peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ alters placental morphology and placental fatty acid uptake in mice,” Endocrinology, vol. 148, no. 8, pp. 3625–3634, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  160. J. A. Keelan, R. J. A. Helliwell, B. E. Nijmeijer et al., “15-deoxy-?12,14-prostaglandin J2-induced apoptosis in amnion-like WISH cells,” Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 265–282, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  161. H. Hasegawa, H. Takano, Y. Zou et al., “Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? activator, ameliorates experimental autoimmune myocarditis by modulating Th1/Th2 balance,” Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 257–265, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  162. S. Dasgupta, A. Roy, M. Jana, D. M. Hartley, and K. Pahan, “Gemfibrozil ameliorates relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis independent of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α,” Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 934–946, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar