Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
PPAR Research
Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 412949, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/412949
Review Article

Role of PPAR in the Control of Torpor through FGF21-NPY Pathway: From Circadian Clock to Seasonal Change in Mammals

1Clock Cell Biology, Department of Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 6-5 Tsukuba Center, 1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, 305-8566, Japan
2Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8502, Japan

Received 18 December 2008; Revised 3 March 2009; Accepted 2 April 2009

Academic Editor: Richard P. Phipps

Copyright © 2009 Norio Ishida. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. Desvergne and W. Wahli, “Proxisome proliferators-activated receptors: nuclear control of metabolism,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 649–688, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. T. Inagaki, P. Dutchak, G. Zhao et al., “Endocrine regulation of the fasting response by PPARa-mediated induction of fibaroblast growth factor 21,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 415–425, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. M. K. Badman, P. Pissios, A. R. Kennedy, G. Koukos, J. S. Flier, and E. Maratos-Flier, “Hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 is regulated by PPARα and is a key mediator of hepatic lipid metabolism in ketotic states,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 426–437, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. T. Lundåsen, M. C. Hunt, L.-M. Nilsson et al., “PPARa is a key regulator of hepatic FGF21,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 360, no. 2, pp. 437–440, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. M. L. Reitman, “FGF21: a missing link in the biology of fasting,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 405–407, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. D. D. Moore, “Physiology: sister act,” Science, vol. 316, no. 5830, pp. 1436–1438, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. J. Dunlap, “Molecular bases for circadian circadian clocks,” Cell, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 271–290, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. N. Ishida, M. Kaneko, and R. Allada, “Biological clocks,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 96, no. 16, pp. 8819–8820, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. U. Schibler and P. Sassone-Corsi, “A web of circadian pacemakers,” Cell, vol. 111, no. 7, pp. 919–922, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. N. Ishida, “Circadian clock, cancer and lipid metabolism,” Neuroscience Research, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 483–490, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. U. Schibler, J. Ripperger, and S. A. Brown, “Peripheral circadian oscillators in mammals: time and food,” Journal of Biological Rhythms, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 250–260, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. B. Staels, “When the Clock stops ticking, metabolic syndrome explodes,” Nature Medicine, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 54–55, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. R. E. Mistlberger, S. Yamazaki, J. S. Pendergast, G. J. Landry, T. Takumi, and W. Nakamura, “Comment on “differential rescue of light-and food-entrainable circadian rhythms”,” Science, vol. 322, no. 5902, p. 675, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. S.-H. Yoo, S. Yamazaki, P. L. Lowrey et al., “PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE real-time reporting of circadian dynamics reveals persistent circadian oscillations in mouse peripheral tissues,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 15, pp. 5339–5346, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. K. Sakamoto, T. Nagase, H. Fukui et al., “Multitissue circadian expression of rat period homolog (rPer2) mRNA is governed by the mammalian circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 273, no. 42, pp. 27039–27042, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. P. L. Lowrey and J. S. Takahashi, “Mammalian circadian biology: elucidating genome-wide levels of temporal organization,” Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, vol. 5, pp. 407–441, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. T. C. Leone, C. J. Weinheimer, and D. P. Kelly, “A critical role for the peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor α (PPARα) in the cellular fasting response: the PPARα-null mouse as a model of fatty acid oxidation disorders,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 96, no. 13, pp. 7473–7478, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. T. Lemberger, R. Saladin, M. Vázquez et al., “Expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor a gene is stimulated by stress and follows a diurnal rhythm,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 271, no. 3, pp. 1764–1769, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. D. D. Patel, B. L. Knight, D. Wiggins, S. M. Humphreys, and G. F. Gibbons, “Disturbances in the normal regulation of SREBP-sensitive genes in PPARα-deficient mice,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 328–337, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  20. K. Oishi, H. Shirai, and N. Ishida, “CLOCK is involved in the circadian transactivation of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in mice,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 386, no. 3, pp. 575–581, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. M. H. Vitaterna, D. P. King, A. M. Chang et al., “Mutagenesis and mapping of a mouse gene, Clock, essential for circadian behavior,” Science, vol. 264, no. 5159, pp. 719–725, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. K. Oishi, K. Miyazaki, and N. Ishida, “Functional CLOCK is not involved in the entrainment of peripheral clocks to the restricted feeding: entrainable expression of mPer2 and BMAL1 mRNAs in the heart of Clock mutant mice on Jcl:ICR background,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 298, no. 2, pp. 198–202, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. F. W. Turek, C. Joshu, A. Kohsaka et al., “Obesity and metabolic syndrome in circadian Clock mutant mice,” Science, vol. 308, no. 5724, pp. 1043–1045, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. K. Oishi, N. Ohkura, M. Wakabayashi et al., “CLOCK is involved in obesity-induced disordered fiblynosis in ob/ob mice by regulating PAI-1 gene expression,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 1774–1780, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. N. Itoh and D. M. Ornitz, “Evolution of the Fgf and Fgfr gene families,” Trends in Genetics, vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 563–569, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. H. Hsuchou, W. Pan, and A. J. Kastin, “The fasting polypeptide FGF21 can enter brain from blood,” Peptides, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 2382–2386, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. S. Chikahisa, K. Tominaga, T. Kawai et al., “Bezafibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors agonist, decreases body temperature and enhances electroencephalogram delta-oscillation during sleep in mice,” Endocrinology, vol. 149, no. 10, pp. 5262–5271, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. K. Oishi, D. Uchida, and N. Ishida, “Circadian expression of FGF21 is induced by PPARα activation in the mouse liver,” FEBS Letters, vol. 582, no. 25-26, pp. 3639–3642, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. J. Dark and K. M. Pelz, “NPY Y1 receptor antagonist prevents NPY-induced torporlike hypothermia in cold-acclimated Siberian hamsters,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 294, no. 1, pp. R236–R245, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. H. Shirai, K. Oishi, T. Kudo, S. Shibata, and N. Ishida, “PPARα is a potential therapeutic target of drugs to treat circadian rhythm sleep disorders,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 357, no. 3, pp. 679–682, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. K. Oishi, H. Shirai, and N. Ishida, “PPARα is involved in photoentrainment of the circadian clock,” NeuroReport, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 487–489, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar