Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Agonists: Do They Increase Cardiovascular Risk?
Effects of PPAR and PPARα agonists on inflammatory mediators. Table shows the effect of PPAR and PPARα receptors modulation on the expression of various inflammatory mediators. ICAM: intercellular adhesion molecule; VCAM: vascular cell adhesion molecule; IL: Interleukin; TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor-α; MMP-9: Matrix metalloproteinase-9; IFN: interferon; NF: Nuclear factor; iNOS: Inducible nitric oxide synthase; CRP: C-Reactive protein; CD40L: CD40 Ligand; LOX-1: low-density lipoprotein receptor-1; AP-1: Activator protein-1 [29, 30, 38–58].
PPAR agonists reduce/decrease
PPARα agonists reduce/decrease
ICAM, VCAM, superoxide generation
ICAM, VCAM, E-selectin
IL-1, IL-2, TNF, MMP-9, IFN-, NFB, iNOS
IL-1, IL-2, TNF, MMP-9, IFN-
CRP, MMP-9, IL-6, soluble CD40L
IL-6, Fibrinogen, CRP, MIF
Vascular smooth muscle cells
VEGF, MMP-9, IL-1, IL-6, TGF, LOX-1, TNF
IL-1, IL-6, fibrinogen-, prostaglandin, NFB, AP-1
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