PPAR Research / 2009 / Article / Tab 3

Review Article

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Agonists: Do They Increase Cardiovascular Risk?

Table 3

Effects of PPAR and PPARα agonists on inflammatory mediators. Table shows the effect of PPAR and PPARα receptors modulation on the expression of various inflammatory mediators. ICAM: intercellular adhesion molecule; VCAM: vascular cell adhesion molecule; IL: Interleukin; TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor-α; MMP-9: Matrix metalloproteinase-9; IFN: interferon; NF: Nuclear factor; iNOS: Inducible nitric oxide synthase; CRP: C-Reactive protein; CD40L: CD40 Ligand; LOX-1: low-density lipoprotein receptor-1; AP-1: Activator protein-1 [29, 30, 3858].

PPAR agonists reduce/decrease PPARα agonists reduce/decrease

EndotheliumICAM, VCAM, superoxide generationICAM, VCAM, E-selectin
MacrophageIL-1, IL-2, TNF , MMP-9, IFN- , NF B, iNOSIL-1, IL-2, TNF , MMP-9, IFN-
Serum/PlasmaCRP, MMP-9, IL-6, soluble CD40LIL-6, Fibrinogen, CRP, MIF
Vascular smooth muscle cellsVEGF, MMP-9, IL-1 , IL-6, TGF , LOX-1, TNF IL-1 , IL-6, fibrinogen- , prostaglandin, NF B, AP-1

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