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PPAR Research
Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 818945, 12 pages
Review Article

Cross-Talk between PPAR and Insulin Signaling and Modulation of Insulin Sensitivity

Section of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology, Andrology and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University of Bari School of Medicine, Piazza Giulio Cesare, 11, 70124 Bari, Italy

Received 8 August 2009; Revised 30 October 2009; Accepted 2 December 2009

Academic Editor: Antonio Brunetti

Copyright © 2009 Anna Leonardini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


PPAR activation in type 2 diabetic patients results in a marked improvement in insulin and glucose parameters, resulting from an improvement of whole-body insulin sensitivity. Adipose tissue is the major mediator of PPAR action on insulin sensitivity. PPAR activation in mature adipocytes induces the expression of a number of genes involved in the insulin signaling cascade, thereby improving insulin sensitivity. PPAR is the master regulator of adipogenesis, thereby stimulating the production of small insulin-sensitive adipocytes. In addition to its importance in adipogenesis, PPAR plays an important role in regulating lipid, metabolism in mature adipocytes by increasing fatty acid trapping. Finally, adipose tissue produces several cytokines that regulate energy homeostasis, lipid and glucose metabolism. Disturbances in the production of these factors may contribute to metabolic abnormalities, and PPAR activation is also associated with beneficial effects on expression and secretion of a whole range of cytokines.