PPAR Research / 2010 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

PPAR in Obesity: Sex Difference and Estrogen Involvement

Table 1

PPAR target genes involved in lipid homeostasis.

Target genesGene expression

Fatty acid uptake, binding, and activation
 Fatty acid transport protein (FATP)Stimulation
 Fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36)Stimulation
 Liver cytosolic fatty acid-binding protein  (L-FABP)Stimulation
 Acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS)Stimulation
 Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I and II  (CPT-1and CPT-II)Stimulation
Mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation
 Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase  (VLCAD)Stimulation
 Long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD)Stimulation
 Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase  (MCAD)Stimulation
 Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD)Stimulation
Peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation
 Acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX)Stimulation
 Bifunctional enzyme (HD)Stimulation
 3-Ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (Thiolase)Stimulation
Hydrolysis of plasma triglycerides
 lipoprotein lipase (LPL)Stimulation
 Apolipoprotein C-III (Apo C-III)Inhibition
Fatty acid synthesis
 Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)Inhibition
 Fatty acid synthase (FAS)Inhibition
HDL metabolism
 Apolipoprotein A-I and A-II (ApoA-I and  ApoA-II)Stimulation
 ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1)Stimulation
Electron transport chain
 Uncoupling protein 1, 2, and 3 (UCP1, 2, and 3)Stimulation

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