Figure 8: PPARs, metabolic syndrome and cancer. This figure illustrates that (i) PPAR activation may counteract the development of metabolic syndrome, (ii) metabolic syndrome increases the risk for cancer, and (iii) PPARs and their ligands exhibit pro-and antitumoral properties towards cancer progression. Metabolic syndrome is considered as a procancer target antagonised by PPARs, a feature (not further discussed in the text) giving support to the view of a possible preventive anticancer action of PPAR ligands which may be supplied by the diets (polyunsaturated fatty acids, for instance). The figure also compares the links leading to the current medical and pharmacological applications of PPAR ligands.