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Figure 2: A central role of PGC-1α in coordinating autophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis. PGC-1α is a broad and powerful regulator of ROS metabolism and plays a dual role in skeletal muscle by activating autophagosomal biogenesis and preventing the induction of autophagy. Inhibited mitophagy impairs mitochondrial biogenesis via PGC-1α in neurodegeneration due to Parkin inactivation. PGC-1α: PPARgamma coactivator 1-alpha; Parkin: an E3 ubiquitin ligase that mediates the ubiquitination of protein substrates in mitophagy induction; PARIS, a zinc finger protein that accumulates in models of Parkin inactivation and in human Parkinson disease.