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PPAR Research
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 362361, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/362361
Review Article

The Role of PPAR in the Transcriptional Control by Agonists and Antagonists

Department of Integrative Physiology and Bio-System Control, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621, Japan

Received 18 January 2012; Accepted 2 April 2012

Academic Editor: Shigehiro Katayama

Copyright © 2012 Tamotsu Tsukahara. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In recent years, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) has been reported to be a target for the treatment of type II diabetes. Furthermore, it has received attention for its therapeutic potential in many other human diseases, including atherosclerosis, obesity, and cancers. Recent studies have provided evidence that the endogenously produced PPARγ antagonist, 2,3-cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA), which is similar in structure to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), inhibits cancer cell invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. We recently observed that cPA negatively regulates PPARγ function by stabilizing the binding of the corepressor protein, silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor. We also showed that cPA prevents neointima formation, adipocyte differentiation, lipid accumulation, and upregulation of PPARγ target gene transcription. We then analyzed the molecular mechanism of cPA's action on PPARγ. In this paper, we summarize the current knowledge on the mechanism of PPARγ-mediated transcriptional activity and transcriptional repression in response to novel lipid-derived ligands, such as cPA.