Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ-Mediated Polarization of Macrophages in Leishmania Infection
Leishmania infection activates PPAR gene expression. In (a) and (b), BALB/c mice were infected i.v. with 107 stationary phase promastigotes of L. donovani for 4 weeks, and then liver and spleen, respectively, were harvested. In (c), peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) were obtained from the peritoneum of normal BALB/c mice, infected with L. donovani at ratio, and then harvested for RNA isolation after 2 days. PPAR activation was measured by real-time RT-PCR with normalization to 18S or actin RNA, and modulation was compared and expressed relative to the uninfected control using the delta-delta Ct method. The infected groups (black bars) showed higher levels of gene expression in liver (a), spleen (b), and PECs (c) in comparison to uninfected controls (open bars). Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney U test, and a value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant.
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