PPAR Research / 2013 / Article / Fig 1

Research Article

Does Pro12Ala Polymorphism Enhance the Physiological Role of PPAR 2?

Figure 1

PPAR transduction pathway. PPAR has several extracellular and intracellular ligands that include dietary and bioactive lipids. Given its antidiabetogenic role, some PPAR ligands include antidiabetic drugs such as thiazolidinediones. PPAR is also modulated by several growth factor transduction pathways such as Jnk/Erk/MKP. It is also known that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) bond to p25 (a product of the cleavage of p35 in obesity environment) inhibits PPAR pathway by its phosphorylation. As a transcriptional factor, PPAR binds to RXR (retinol X receptor) in order to transcribe several genes related to adipocyte differentiation and lipid storage in adipose tissue and increase insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues by indirect increase of AMP kinase activity as well as several other antidiabetogenic effects. Moreover, PPAR blocks NF B signaling, thus reducing proinflammatory cytokines and inflammation.

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