PPARα: A Master Regulator of Bilirubin Homeostasis
Fenofibrate increases HO-1, UGT1A1, and MRP2 mRNA levels in human vascular and hepatic cell models. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) (a and b), coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMC) (c and d), human hepatocytes (HH; donor 2) (e and f), and HepG2 cells (g and h) were treated with vehicle (DMSO, 0.1%, v/v) or fenofibrate (250 μM) for 24 H (HUVEC and HH) or 48 H (CASMC and HepG2). Messenger RNA levels were quantified from total RNA through quantitative RT-PCR analyses and normalized with the housekeeping RNA 28S. Values (mean ± SD) are expressed relatively to control (vehicle) set at 1. Statistically significant differences between vehicle- and fenofibrate-treated cells are indicated by asterisks (Student’s -test: ; ; ; n.s: nonsignificant).