Table 1: Transcriptional regulators of PPARs (see text for acronyms).

TargetEffectStimulus

PPARLPS [7, 8], JNK signaling [9], HF [10], MI [11], hypoxia [12, 13], IL-1β [14], IL-6 [14], PPARδ [15, 16], NF-κΒ [17], glucose [18, 19], insulin [20], Akt [21], c-Myc [22], JAK/STAT pathway [23], ROS [17], growth hormone [24], androgens [25], and angiotensin II [26]
Glucocorticoids [27], FXR [28], AMPK [2931], ERRα [32], retinoic acid [33], RxR [34], phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate [35], exercise training [36], and heat shock factor-1 [37]

PPARIL-6 [80], NF-κB [81], and ATGL deficiency [82]
AMPK-PGC1a axis, exercise training [73], PML tumor suppressor gene [74], ERK5 [75], HL hydrolytic activity [76], LPS [77], HIV-1 Vpr [78], and fasting [79]

PPARLPS [51, 52], JNK [5355], TNFα [5659], IL-11 [58], CHOP [60], retinoic acid [33, 61], ER-α [62], JAK/STAT pathway [23, 38, 39], interferon-gamma [51, 63], leptin [64] angiotensin II [26], fasting [65], androgens [66], KLF2 [53, 69], KLF7 [70], and KLF6 [72]
C/EBPs [38, 39], estrogen [40], MEK/ERK signaling [41], c-Fos [42] TGF-β [43], Smad1 [44], p38 kinase, Egr-1 [45], polyunsaturated fatty acids [19, 46, 47], the orphan nuclear receptor RORα [48], Zfp423 [49], vitamin E [50], KLF5 [67], KLF15 [68], and KLF6 [71]