Table 1: Tissue distribution, target genes, and main functions of PPAR subtypes.

PPAR isoformPPARαPPARβ/δPPARγ

Tissue distributionLiver, heart, BATMany tissues (mainly in skeletal muscle, liver, heart)PPARγ1: many tissues
PPARγ2: WAT and BAT
Target genesACAA2, ACAD, CPT1A, CPT2, ETFA, ETFDH, HADHA, HADHB, SLC25A20, SLC22A5, TXNIP, apoA-1ACOX1, CPT1, LCAD, UCP1, VLCAD, CPT1ACBP, ACS, aP2, CD36, C/EBPα, GLUT4, LPL, GyK, IRS-1, IRS-2, PEPCK, PI3K, STAT1, STAT5A, STAT5B
Physiological functionsFatty acid oxidation, amino acid catabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, lipoprotein synthesis [1, 2]Fatty acid oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, muscle type determination [3]Adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis [2, 4]

ACAA2, acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 2; ACAD, acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase; ACBP, acyl-CoA-binding protein; ACOX1, acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1; ACS, acyl-CoA synthetase; aP2, fatty acid binding protein 2; BAT, brown adipose tissue, C/EBPα, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α; CD36, cluster of differentiation 36; CPT, carnitine palmitoyl transferase; ETFA, electron transfer flavoprotein alpha subunit; ETFDH, electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase; GLUT4, glucose transporter 4; GyK, glycerol kinase; HADHA, hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, alpha subunit; IRS, insulin receptor substrate; LCAD, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase; LPL, lipoprotein lipase; PEPCK, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; PI3K, phosphoinositide 3-kinase; SLC25A20, solute carrier family 25 member 20; STAT, signal transducer and activator of transcription; TXNIP, thioredoxin-interacting protein; UCP1, uncoupling protein 1; VLCAD, very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase.