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PPAR Research
Volume 2017, Article ID 8187235, 15 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8187235
Review Article

Potential Role of ANGPTL4 in the Cross Talk between Metabolism and Cancer through PPAR Signaling Pathway

1ICAR-CNR, National Research Council of Italy, 90146 Palermo, Italy
2Department of Surgical, Oncological and Oral Sciences, Section of Medical Oncology, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy
3Génomique Fonctionnelle des Tumeurs Solides, INSERM, UMR 1162, 75010 Paris, France
4Samantha Dickson Brain Cancer Unit, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, London WC1E 6DD, UK

Correspondence should be addressed to Daniele Fanale; ti.orebil@nadnaf

Received 20 October 2016; Accepted 19 December 2016; Published 15 January 2017

Academic Editor: Stéphane Mandard

Copyright © 2017 Laura La Paglia et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) protein belongs to a superfamily of secreted proteins structurally related to factors modulating angiogenesis known as angiopoietins. At first, ANGPTL4 has been identified as an adipokine exclusively involved in lipid metabolism, because of its prevalent expression in liver and adipose tissue. This protein regulates lipid metabolism by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and stimulating lipolysis of white adipose tissue (WAT), resulting in increased levels of plasma triglycerides (TG) and fatty acids. Subsequently, ANGPTL4 has been shown to be involved in several nonmetabolic and metabolic conditions, both physiological and pathological, including angiogenesis and vascular permeability, cell differentiation, tumorigenesis, glucose homoeostasis, lipid metabolism, energy homeostasis, wound healing, inflammation, and redox regulation. The transcriptional regulation of ANGPTL4 can be modulated by several transcription factors, including PPARα, PPARβ/δ, PPARγ, and HIF-1α, and nutritional and hormonal conditions. Several studies showed that high levels of ANGPTL4 are associated with poor prognosis in patients with various solid tumors, suggesting an important role in cancer onset and progression, metastasis, and anoikis resistance. Here, we have discussed the potential role of ANGPTL4 in mediating the cross talk between metabolic syndromes, such as diabetes and obesity, and cancer through regulation of its expression by PPARs.