PPAR Research / 2019 / Article / Fig 3

Research Article

Arsenic Trioxide in Synergy with Vitamin D Rescues the Defective VDR-PPAR- Functional Module of Autophagy in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Figure 3

Combined effect of arsenic trioxide (ATO) and Vitamin D (Vit D) on the Vitamin D receptor (VDR)-PPAR-γ autophagy functional module. (a) Synergic upregulation of VDR, PPAR-γ, and LC-3 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) after administration of ATO (2 μM) and Vit D (50 and100 nM) alone or in combination compared with the vehicle (n=3; p<0.05; p<0.01; p<0.001). (b) Real-time PCR showed a significant decrease in the expression of VDR mRNA in RA FLS after treatment with GW9662, an antagonist of PPAR-γ. On the other hand, treatment with rosiglitazone (ROG) significantly upregulated VDR mRNA expression (n=3, p<0.05; p<0.01 versus RA FLS treated with the medium alone (control).


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