Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Pathology Research International
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 932932, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/932932
Review Article

EGFR Signaling in Colorectal Carcinoma

Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Presbyterian Hospital, A610, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-2546, USA

Received 18 October 2010; Accepted 5 January 2011

Academic Editor: Rhonda K. Yantiss

Copyright © 2011 Alyssa M. Krasinskas. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. N. E. Hynes and H. A. Lane, “ERBB receptors and cancer: the complexity of targeted inhibitors,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 341–354, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  2. A. Citri and Y. Yarden, “EGF-ERBB signalling: towards the systems level,” Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 505–516, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  3. T. Mitsudomi and Y. Yatabe, “Epidermal growth factor receptor in relation to tumor development: EGFR gene and cancer,” FEBS Journal, vol. 277, no. 2, pp. 301–308, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  4. J. P. Spano, R. Fagard, J. C. Soria, O. Rixe, D. Khayat, and G. Milano, “Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in colorectal cancer: preclinical data and therapeutic perspectives,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 189–194, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  5. S. S. Chang and J. Califano, “Current status of biomarkers in head and neck cancer,” Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 97, no. 8, pp. 640–643, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  6. S. Dacic, “EGFR assays in lung cancer,” Advances in Anatomic Pathology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 241–247, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  7. N. S. Goldstein and M. Armin, “Epidermal growth factor receptor immunohistochemical reactivity in patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage IV colon adenocarcinoma: implications for a standardized scoring system,” Cancer, vol. 92, pp. 1331–1346, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  8. J. A. McKay, L. J. Murray, S. Curran et al., “Evaluation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in colorectal tumours and lymph node metastases,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 38, no. 17, pp. 2258–2264, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. B. Resnick, J. Routhier, T. Konkin, E. Sabo, and V. E. Pricolo, “Epidermal growth factor receptor, c-MET, β-catenin, and p53 expression as prognostic indicators in stage II colon cancer: a tissue microarray study,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 3069–3075, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. B. Saltz, N. J. Meropol, P. J. Loehrer Sr., M. N. Needle, J. Kopit, and R. J. Mayer, “Phase II trial of cetuximab in patients with refractory colorectal cancer that expresses the epidermal growth factor receptor,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 1201–1208, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  11. K. Y. Chung, J. Shia, N. E. Kemeny et al., “Cetuximab shows activity in colorectal cancer patients with tumors that do not express the epidermal growth factor receptor by immunohistochemistry,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 1803–1810, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. D. Cunningham, Y. Humblet, S. Siena et al., “Cetuximab monotherapy and cetuximab plus irinotecan in irinotecan- refractory metastatic colorectal cancer,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 351, no. 4, pp. 337–345, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. L. Frederick, X. Y. Wang, G. Eley, and C. D. James, “Diversity and frequency of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in human glioblastomas,” Cancer Research, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 1383–1387, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. T. J. Lynch, D. W. Bell, R. Sordella et al., “Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor underlying responsiveness of non-small-cell lung cancer to gefitinib,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 350, no. 21, pp. 2129–2139, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  15. J. G. Paez, P. A. Jänne, J. C. Lee et al., “EGFR mutations in lung, cancer: correlation with clinical response to gefitinib therapy,” Science, vol. 304, no. 5676, pp. 1497–1500, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  16. W. Pao, V. Miller, M. Zakowski et al., “EGF receptor gene mutations are common in lung cancers from "never smokers" and are associated with sensitivity of tumors to gefitinib and erlotinib,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 36, pp. 13306–13311, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  17. J. W. Lee, Y. H. Soung, S. Y. Kim et al., “Absence of EGFR mutation in the kinase domain in common human cancers besides non-small cell lung cancer,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 510–511, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  18. T. D. Barber, B. Vogelstein, K. W. Kinzler, and V. E. Velculescu, “Somatic mutations of EGFR in colorectal cancers and glioblastomas,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 351, no. 27, p. 2883, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. J. Shia, D. S. Klimstra, A. R. Li et al., “Epidermal growth factor receptor expression and gene amplification in colorectal carcinoma: an immunohistochemical and chromogenic in situ hybridization study,” Modern Pathology, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1350–1356, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  20. K. L. Spindler, J. Lindebjerg, J. N. Nielsen et al., “Epidermal growth factor receptor analyses in colorectal cancer: a comparison of methods,” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 1159–1165, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. F. Cappuzzo, G. Finocchiaro, E. Rossi et al., “EGFR FISH assay predicts for response to cetuximab in chemotherapy refractory colorectal cancer patients,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 717–723, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  22. A. Bardelli and S. Siena, “Molecular mechanisms of resistance to cetuximab and panitumumab in colorectal cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1254–1261, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  23. A. Italiano, P. Follana, F. X. Caroli et al., “Cetuximab shows activity in colorectal cancer patients with tumors for which FISH analysis does not detect an increase in EGFR gene copy number,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 649–654, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  24. P. Laurent-Puig, A. Cayre, G. Manceau et al., “Analysis of PTEN, BRAF, and EGFR status in determining benefit from cetuximab therapy in wild-type KRAS metastatic colon cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 27, no. 35, pp. 5924–5930, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  25. G. C. Burmer and L. A. Loeb, “Mutations in the KRAS2 oncogene during progressive stages of human colon carcinoma,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 86, no. 7, pp. 2403–2407, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. Leslie, F. A. Carey, N. R. Pratt, and R. J. C. Steele, “The colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence,” British Journal of Surgery, vol. 89, no. 7, pp. 845–860, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. M. Brink, A. F. P. M. de Goeij, M. P. Weijenberg et al., “K-ras oncogene mutations in sporadic colorectal cancer in The Netherlands Cohort Study,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 703–710, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. W. S. Samowitz, K. Curtin, D. Schaffer, M. Robertson, M. Leppert, and M. L. Slattery, “Relationship of Ki-ras mutations in colon cancers to tumor location, stage, and survival: a population-based study,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 1193–1197, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. D. Roth, S. Tejpar, M. Delorenzi et al., “Prognostic role of KRAS and BRAF in stage II and III resected colon cancer: results of the translational study on the PETACC-3, EORTC 40993, SAKK 60-00 trial,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 466–474, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  30. H. J. N. Andreyev, A. R. Norman, D. Cunningham et al., “Kirsten ras mutations in patients with colorectal cancer: the 'RASCAL II' study,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 85, no. 5, pp. 692–696, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  31. R. T. Belly, J. D. Rosenblatt, M. Steinmann et al., “Detection of mutated K12-ras in histologically negative lymph nodes as an indicator of poor prognosis in stage II colorectal cancer,” Clinical Colorectal Cancer, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 110–116, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Tejpar, M. Bertagnolli, F. Bosman et al., “Prognostic and predictive biomarkers in resected colon cancer: current status and future perspectives for integrating genomics into biomarker discovery,” Oncologist, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 390–404, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  33. S. Ogino, J. A. Meyerhardt, N. Irahara et al., “KRAS mutation in stage III colon cancer and clinical outcome following intergroup trial CALGB 89803,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 15, no. 23, pp. 7322–7329, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  34. R. G. Amado, M. Wolf, M. Peeters et al., “Wild-type KRAS is required for panitumumab efficacy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 1626–1634, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  35. W. de Roock, H. Piessevaux, J. de Schutter et al., “KRAS wild-type state predicts survival and is associated to early radiological response in metastatic colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 508–515, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  36. F. Di Fiore, F. Blanchard, F. Charbonnier et al., “Clinical relevance of KRAS mutation detection in metastatic colorectal cancer treated by Cetuximab plus chemotherapy,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 96, no. 8, pp. 1166–1169, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  37. C. S. Karapetis, S. Khambata-Ford, D. J. Jonker et al., “K-ras mutations and benefit from cetuximab in advanced colorectal cancer,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 359, no. 17, pp. 1757–1765, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  38. A. Lièvre, J. B. Bachet, V. Boige et al., “KRAS mutations as an independent prognostic factor in patients with advanced colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 374–379, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  39. A. Lièvre, J. B. Bachet, D. Le Corre et al., “KRAS mutation status is predictive of response to cetuximab therapy in colorectal cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 66, no. 8, pp. 3992–3995, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  40. M. J. Garnett and R. Marais, “Guilty as charged: B-RAF is a human oncogene,” Cancer Cell, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 313–319, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  41. H. Rajagopalan, A. Bardelli, C. Lengauer, K. W. Kinzler, B. Vogelstein, and V. E. Velculescu, “RAF/RAS oncogenes and mismatch-repair status,” Nature, vol. 418, no. 6901, article 934, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  42. W. S. Samowitz, C. Sweeney, J. Herrick et al., “Poor survival associated with the BRAF V600E mutation in microsatellite-stable colon cancers,” Cancer Research, vol. 65, no. 14, pp. 6063–6070, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  43. E. Domingo, P. Laiho, M. Ollikainen et al., “BRAF screening as a low-cost effective strategy for simplifying HNPCC genetic testing,” Journal of Medical Genetics, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 664–668, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  44. M. B. Loughrey, P. M. Waring, A. Tan et al., “Incorporation of somatic BRAF mutation testing into an algorithm for the investigation of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer,” Familial Cancer, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 301–310, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  45. H. Davies, G. R. Bignell, C. Cox et al., “Mutations of the BRAF gene in human cancer,” Nature, vol. 417, no. 6892, pp. 949–954, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  46. F. Loupakis, A. Ruzzo, C. Cremolini et al., “KRAS codon 61, 146 and BRAF mutations predict resistance to cetuximab plus irinotecan in KRAS codon 12 and 13 wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 101, no. 4, pp. 715–721, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  47. W. de Roock, B. Claes, D. Bernasconi et al., “Effects of KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA mutations on the efficacy of cetuximab plus chemotherapy in chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer: a retrospective consortium analysis,” Lancet Oncology, vol. 11, pp. 753–762, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. Y. Baba, K. Nosho, K. Shima et al., “Phosphorylated AKT expression is associated with PIK3CA mutation, low stage, and favorable outcome in 717 colorectal cancers,” Cancer. In press.
  49. S. Ogino, K. Nosho, G. J. Kirkner et al., “PIK3CA mutation is associated with poor prognosis among patients with curatively resected colon cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1477–1484, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  50. X. P. Zhou, A. Loukola, R. Salovaara et al., “PTEN mutational spectra, expression levels, and subcellular localization in microsatellite stable and unstable colorectal cancers,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 161, no. 2, pp. 439–447, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. N. T. Nassif, G. P. Lobo, X. Wu et al., “PTEN mutations are common in sporadic microsatellite stable colorectal cancer,” Oncogene, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 617–628, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  52. P. M. Wilson, M. J. LaBonte, and H. J. Lenz, “Molecular markers in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer,” Cancer Journal, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 262–272, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus