Nurses’ Knowledge and Attitude towards Postoperative Pain Management in GhanaRead the full article
Pain Research and Management publishes research focusing on laboratory and clinical findings in the field of pain research and the prevention and management of pain.
Chief Editor, Professor Valeriani deals with clinical neurophysiology with a special interest in pain and headaches in children and adults and is currently a neurologist who works at the Bambi Gesu Children’s Hospital in Rome.
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Can Platelet Count and Mean Platelet Volume be Used as Markers of Postdural Puncture Headache in Obstetric Patients?
Objective. In this study, considering the importance of platelet function in inflammatory processes, we explored whether there are relationships of platelet indices with postdural puncture headache (PDPH) and pain developing after use of spinal needles and whether patient characteristics contribute to the development of PDPH. Methods. This prospective, observational study included 76 patients (Group 1) with PDPH and 93 patients (Group 2) without PDPH. The postoperative hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet count (PC), and mean platelet volume (MPV) values were recorded, along with age, blood type, Rh factor, gravida, parity, and gestational age. In addition, the time of the onset of pain was recorded in patients who complained of a postspinal headache. Results. Hemoglobin and hematocrit values in Group 1 were significantly lower than in Group 2 (both, ). The PC of Group 1 was significantly higher than that of Group 2 (), whereas the MPV was significantly lower (). The area under the curve (AUC) values were significant for hemoglobin, hematocrit, PC, and MPV (, , , and , resp.). For MPV, the AUC value was 0.293, sensitivity was 1%, and specificity was 99%. The highest likelihood ratio (LR+) value was 1.22 at a cut-off value of 13.3 fL. For the PC, the AUC value was 0.666, the sensitivity was 9%, and the specificity was 99%, while the highest LR + value was 8.56 at a cut-off value of 352 × 109/L. There was no significant relationship between the parameters examined and the onset of pain. Conclusion. In this study, the PC was higher and MPV was lower in obstetric patients with PDPH compared with the control group. However, we also found that these two values cannot be used as markers of PDPH.
Effect of Preoperative Zoledronic Acid Administration on Pain Intensity after Percutaneous Vertebroplasty for Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures
Introduction. This study aimed to compare and analyze the effect of preoperative zoledronic acid (ZOL) administration on pain intensity after percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) for osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF). Methods. The study included 242 patients with OVCFs who underwent PVP in our hospital between January 2015 and June 2018. The patients were randomly assigned to either a ZOL group (n = 121) or a control group (n = 121). The patients in the ZOL group were treated preoperatively with intravenous infusion of 5 mg ZOL. Those in the control group were treated without ZOL. All the patients were followed up for 1 year. Results. No statistically significant differences in age, sex, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were found between the two groups. During the follow-up period, the visual analog scale score and Oswestry dysfunction index score in the ZOL group were lower than those in the control group. The bone mineral density at 6 or 12 months after treatment was significantly higher and the levels of the bone metabolism markers were significantly lower in the ZOL group than in the control group ( for both). Two patients in the treatment group had new vertebral fractures, whereas 13 patients in the control group had new vertebral fractures, which translate to recompression vertebral fracture incidence rates of 1.7% and 10.7%, respectively. The incidence rate of mild adverse reactions was significantly higher in the ZOL group than in the control group, but all the cases were endurable. Conclusion. Intravenous infusion of ZOL before PVP can effectively reduce postoperative pain intensity, reduce bone loss, increase bone density, reduce the risk of refracture, and improve patient quality of life.
Correlation between Parental-Reported Tooth Grinding and Sleep Disorders: Investigation in a Cohort of 741 Consecutive Children
Purpose. A possible relationship between sleep bruxism (SB) and several sleep disorders has been suggested in children, which could influence sleep quality and quality of life. This study aims to assess such correlations in a large sample of school children. Methods. Parents of 741 consecutive children aged between 8 and 12 years filled the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC). It evaluated 45 items grouped in 8 components: duration of night-time sleep, sleep latency, bedtime problems, sleep quality, night awakenings, nocturnal symptoms, morning symptoms, and daytime sleepiness. An item evaluating parental-reported tooth grinding was also included. Correlation analysis was performed between parental-reported tooth grinding and all the other items. Results. A significant correlation between parental-reported tooth grinding and several sleep disorders concerning bedtime problems, night awakenings, nocturnal symptoms, and morning symptoms has been found. In general, correlation strength of significant pairs was low, ranging from 0.092 (sleep apnea) to 0.234 (movement while falling asleep). Conclusions. Parental-reported tooth grinding in children is correlated, even if weakly, with some sleep disorders concerning the sphere of bedtime problems, night awakenings, nocturnal symptoms, breathing symptoms, and morning symptoms. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings, with particular regard to the consistency of correlation outcomes between the parental reports and the sleep laboratory measures.
Progesterone Attenuates Allodynia of Inflamed Temporomandibular Joint through Modulating Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel 1.7 in Trigeminal Ganglion
Background. Women with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) experience some amelioration of pain during pregnancy. Progesterone increases dramatically and steadily during pregnancy. Sodium channel 1.7 (Nav1.7) plays a prominent role in pain perceptions, as evidenced by deletion of Nav1.7 alone leading to a complete loss of pain. In a previous study, we showed that Nav1.7 in trigeminal ganglion (TG) is involved in allodynia of inflamed temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Whether progesterone modulates allodynia of inflamed TMJ through Nav1.7 in TG remains to be investigated. Methods. The effects of progesterone on sodium currents of freshly isolated TG neurons were examined using whole-cell recording. Female rats were ovariectomized and treated with increasing doses of progesterone for 10 days. Complete Freund’s adjuvant was administered intra-articularly to induce TMJ inflammation. TMJ nociceptive responses were evaluated by head withdrawal thresholds. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to examine Nav1.7 mRNA and protein expression in TG. Immunohistofluorescence was used to examine the colocalization of progesterone receptors (PRα/β) and Nav1.7 in TG. Results. Whole-cell recording showed that progesterone could attenuate sodium currents. Moreover, progesterone dose-dependently downregulated Nav1.7 mRNA expression and reduced the sensitivity of TMJ nociception in ovariectomized rats. Furthermore, treatment with progesterone attenuated allodynia of inflamed TMJ in a dose-dependent manner and repressed inflammation-induced Nav1.7 mRNA and protein expression in ovariectomized rats. The progesterone receptor antagonist, RU-486, partially reversed the effect of progesterone on allodynia of inflamed TMJ and TMJ inflammation-induced Nav1.7 mRNA and protein expression. Conclusion. Progesterone, by modulating trigeminal ganglionic Nav1.7, may represent a promising agent to prevent allodynia of inflamed TMJ.
Retrospective Study on Ganglionic and Nerve Block Series as Therapeutic Option for Chronic Pain Patients with Refractory Neuropathic Pain
Objective. Current recommendations controversially discuss local infiltration techniques as specific treatment for refractory pain syndromes. Evidence of effectiveness remains inconclusive and local infiltration series are discussed as a therapeutic option in patients not responding to standard therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of infiltration series with techniques such as sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) block and ganglionic local opioid analgesia (GLOA) for the treatment of neuropathic pain in the head and neck area in a selected patient group. Methods. In a retrospective clinical study, 4960 cases presenting to our university hospital outpatient pain clinic between 2009 and 2016 were screened. Altogether, 83 patients with neuropathic pain syndromes receiving local infiltration series were included. Numeric rating scale (NRS) scores before, during, and after infiltration series, comorbidity, and psychological assessment were evaluated. Results. Maximum NRS before infiltration series was median 9 (IQR 8–10). During infiltration series, maximum NRS was reduced by mean 3.2 points (SD 3.3, ) equaling a pain reduction of 41.0% (SD 40.4%). With infiltration series, mean pain reduction of at least 30% or 50% NRS was achieved in 54.2% or 44.6% of cases, respectively. In six percent of patients, increased pain intensity was noted. Initial improvement after the first infiltration was strongly associated with overall improvement throughout the series. Conclusion. This study suggests a beneficial effect of local infiltration series as a treatment option for refractory neuropathic pain syndromes in the context of a multimodal approach. This effect is both significant and clinically relevant and therefore highlights the need for further randomized controlled trials.
Translation, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Validation of the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire in Dutch Healthy Volunteers
An increased sensitivity to painful stimuli has been proposed to be related to the development of chronic pain. Therefore, assessment of individual pain sensitivity is useful in clinical practice. However, experimental pain testing may be uncomfortable for patients and requires specific equipment. The Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ) has been developed to facilitate assessment of pain sensitivity. In this study, we aimed to translate and cross-culturally adapt the PSQ from its published German and English versions into the Dutch language and to assess validity of the PSQ in healthy volunteers. After translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the PSQ following international guidelines, we validated the PSQ in 394 healthy volunteers by comparing the PSQ-values with two different experimental pain tests: electrical pain tolerance (EPT) and pressure pain threshold (PPT). In addition, ratings of pain intensity during these tests were obtained on the numerical rating scale (NRS, 0–10). We found that the reliability of the PSQ based on internal consistency was good (Cronbach’s alpha 0.90). PSQ-scores, adjusted for age and sex, were statistically significant and weakly inversely correlated to EPT (PSQ-moderate: rho = −0.24, ; PSQ-total: rho = −0.22, ). No statistically significant correlation between PSQ-scores and PPT was found. Concerning the pain scores, PSQ-scores were weakly to moderately correlated to EPT-NRS (PSQ-minor: rho = 0.21, ; PSQ-moderate: rho = 0.22, ; PSQ-total: rho = 0.23, ) as well as PPT-NRS (PSQ-minor: rho = 0.32, ; PSQ-moderate: rho = 0.36, ; PSQ-total: rho = 0.37, ). Therefore, we concluded that the Dutch version of the PSQ is culturally appropriate for assessing self-reported pain sensitivity in healthy volunteers.