Pain Research and Management
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Acceptance rate36%
Submission to final decision104 days
Acceptance to publication40 days
CiteScore1.620
Impact Factor1.701
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Nursing-Related Barriers to Children’s Pain Management at Selected Hospitals in Ghana: A Descriptive Qualitative Study

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 Journal profile

Pain Research and Management publishes research focusing on laboratory and clinical findings in the field of pain research and the prevention and management of pain.

 Editor spotlight

Chief Editor, Professor Valeriani deals with clinical neurophysiology with a special interest in pain and headaches in children and adults and is currently a neurologist who works at the Bambi Gesu Children’s Hospital in Rome.

 Special Issues

We currently have a number of Special Issues open for submission. Special Issues highlight emerging areas of research within a field, or provide a venue for a deeper investigation into an existing research area.

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Research Article

Clinical Rehabilitation Effect of Postoperative Lower-Limb Training on the Patients Undergoing OLIF Surgery: A Retrospective Study

Background. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the clinical rehabilitation effect of lower-limb training on the patients that undergo oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF) procedures. Methods. The eligible participants undergoing OLIF procedures between 01/2017 and 07/2019 were identified. All the patients underwent one-segment fusion operation (L3-4 or L4-5). Based on whether the participants received postoperative rehabilitation training, they were divided into two groups: intervention group and control group. Postoperatively, the participants in the intervention group were trained with lower-extremity rehabilitation exercise and maintained for three months. All participants got reexamined at the first postoperative week, the second postoperative week, the first postoperative month, and the third postoperative month (last follow-up). Comparisons were made in terms of the lower-extremity muscle force, visual analogue scale (VAS) score, lumbar JOA score, Oswestry disability index (ODI), the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and patient satisfaction. Results. Seventy-seven participants in the intervention group (32 males and 45 females) and 82 in the control group (39 males and 43 females) were incorporated in this study. The median age of the participants was 57 years (39∼73) in the intervention group and 54 years (35∼71) in the control group. No statistical significance between the two groups was found (). ODI score was less in the intervention group as compared to the control group in the first week after surgery (). VAS and JOA scores were better in the intervention group in the first two weeks after surgery (). DVT incidence in the intervention group was lower than the control group at final follow-up (). Both group participants have achieved good grading in muscle force rehabilitation but no significant differences between the two groups. Additionally, satisfaction was higher in the intervention group than the control group. Conclusions. In summary, postoperative lower-extremity rehabilitation exercise can effectively accelerate patients’ health recovery from the OLIF surgery and increase their satisfaction.

Clinical Study

Oblique Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Stand-Alone Cages for the Treatment of Degenerative Lumbar Spondylolisthesis: A Retrospective Study with 1-Year Follow-Up

Patients with degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis (DLS) often suffer from years of low back pain (LBP) due to instability of the lumbar spine and the reduction of disc height. Since January 2016, we have performed oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) on 154 patients. Among these, 56 patients who suffered from DLS underwent OLIF with stand-alone cages. Forty-two patients with a follow-up time that exceeded 1-year were enrolled for this study. The forty-two patients were followed up for at least one year. Operation segments ranged from L3-4 to L4-5. All the patients were with 1-level fusion. The mean postoperative ventral-disc height and dorsal-disc height increased significantly compared with preoperative (). A significant postoperative increase was also observed in the mean operative segmental lordotic angle and the whole lumbar lordotic angle (). Compared with preoperative, the postoperative VAS significantly decreased with no significant increase in the VAS in the last follow-up. The LBP was significantly relieved. The mean postoperative VAS of LBP decreased significantly compared with the preoperative ((1.6 ± 0.8) vs. (7.8 ± 0.8)). Postoperative complications included psoas major abscess and intervertebral space infection (1/56). Except for one patient whose cage subsided during the last follow-up, the other patients had good cage position. The one whose cage collapsed complained no symptoms including LBP. OLIF with stand-alone cages should be considered as a safe and effective option which can effectively alleviate LBP for the treatment of DLS.

Research Article

Analysis of Spinopelvic Sagittal Balance and Persistent Low Back Pain (PLBP) for Degenerative Spondylolisthesis (DS) following Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (PLIF)

Objective. To investigate the change of spinopelvic sagittal balance and clinical outcomes after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS), especially the relationship between sagittal spinopelvic parameters and persistent low back pain (PLBP). Methods. 107 patients who were diagnosed with DS and underwent PLIF in our department were enrolled retrospectively in the present study. Sagittal spinopelvic parameters including lumbar lordosis (LL), segmental lordosis (SL), height of the disc (HOD), sacral slope (SS), pelvic incidence (PI), and pelvic tilt (PT) were recorded pre- and postoperatively. Sagittal balance and clinical outcomes were compared between patients with and without PLBP. Pearson correlation was used to analyze the change of sagittal balance parameters and clinical functions. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the risk factors of PLBP. Results. It showed significant improvements of SL, HOD, and PT postoperatively. Both the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) had significant improvement postoperatively. Change of PT and SL also differed observably between patients with and without PLBP. SL and PT were correlated with NRS and ODI, and insufficient restoration of PT was an independent factor for PLBP. Conclusion. The sagittal balance parameters and clinical outcomes can be improved markedly via PLIF for treating DS. Restoration of SL and PT was correlated with satisfactory outcomes, and adequate improvement of PT may have positive impact on reducing PLBP.

Research Article

Numbness and Weakness Recovered at a Less Extent in Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation after Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy

Background. Patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH) may present with motor disorders and various sensory disorders, among which pain and numbness are the most common ones. Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) is reported to be both safe and effective. However, most of the previous studies focused on the recovery of pain, and the relief extent of numbness and weakness has rarely been reported. The Sciatica Bothersomeness Index (SBI) is a self-assessment tool for LDH patients. It has demonstrated acceptable reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness. Objectives. Our aim was to explore the curative effect of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy and to compare the various extent of relief among pain, numbness, and weakness. Methods. The medical records of patients admitted for LDH from September 2016 to December 2018 were collected, and the patients were followed up for 3 months to evaluate the relief of their clinical symptoms. Preoperative and postoperative total scores and subitem scores of SBI were compared to evaluate the relief of pain, numbness, and weakness. Surgical outcomes of PELD were evaluated by the Nakai score, and patients were divided into two groups accordingly, which were the relief group (excellent and good in the Nakai score) and the less relief group (fair and poor in the Nakai score). Risk factors for PELD outcomes and preoperative presence of numbness and/or weakness were analyzed by the logistic model, and value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results. A total of 86 patients met the inclusion criteria and acquired 3 months follow-up. Relief extent of pain, numbness, and weakness, was 82%, 41%, and 21%, respectively. There were 71 cases in the relief group and 15 cases in the less relief group. Results of the logistic regression analysis showed that the preoperative pain score of SBI (; OR: 1.647 (1.199–2.261)) was a relatively independent risk factor for PELD outcomes, and multiplicativity of duration of preoperative symptoms and imaging grade [; OR: 1.015 (1.005–1.026)] was a relatively independent risk factor for preoperative presence of numbness and/or weakness. Conclusions. PELD had a good curative effect in the treatment of LDH. Patients of LDH recovered best from pain, followed by numbness and weakness after PELD. Higher level of patients self-reported preoperative pain indicated a better surgical outcome for LDH patients, and preoperative long duration of symptoms together with a severe compression of nerve root significantly increased the risk of presenting numbness and/or weakness.

Clinical Study

Effect of an Acupuncture Technique of Penetrating through Zhibian (BL54) to Shuidao (ST28) with Long Needle for Pain Relief in Patients with Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Background. Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is the commonest gynecological disorder in young women of reproductive age, and there is not always satisfactory relief of pain treated by common medications. Therefore, acupuncture has been used as an alternative therapy to relieve the symptoms of PD. In clinical practice, a penetrating method of acupuncture with long needle has been shown to be particularly effective for improving primary dysmenorrhea. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of this technique for pain relief in patients with primary dysmenorrhea as compared with a conventional pain medication. Methods. The present study is a perspective, randomized, ibuprofen-controlled trial. Sixty-two eligible participants were randomly assigned in a 1 : 1 ratio to receive either acupuncture treatment or ibuprofen administration. The treatment lasted for three menstrual cycles for both groups. The primary outcome was the intensity of menstrual pain measured by using the visual analogue scale at the completion of treatment. Secondary outcomes included the severity of symptoms associated with menstrual pain, responder rate, and safety of acupuncture treatment. The clinical outcomes were measured on each menstrual cycle at baseline, treatment course (3 cycles), and follow-up period. Results. Sixty-four patients of primary dysmenorrhea were recruited, and 62 subjects were included in the final analysis. At trial completion, acupuncture was shown to be associated with a significantly lower pain intensity and decreased symptom severity of primary dysmenorrhea as compared with ibuprofen (). A significantly higher responder rate was found in the acupuncture group as compared with the control group (). No serious adverse events were reported by patients in either group. Conclusions. The penetrating method of acupuncture with long needle may be an effective and safe therapy for pain relief in patients with primary dysmenorrhea. This trial was registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR-IOR-17012621).

Review Article

The Effectiveness and Safety of Moxibustion for Treating Knee Osteoarthritis: A PRISMA Compliant Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Background. Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) seriously affects people’s life. Therefore, it has already become a worldwide health concern. Moxibustion has a significant clinical effect on KOA. This systematic review and meta-analysis is performed to renew previous studies and strictly evaluate the quality of RCT and thus test the effect and safety of moxibustion for KOA. Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of moxibustion treatment for alleviating pain and improving lower limb function for patients with KOA. Materials and Methods. CNKI (1979∼2019), CBM (1979∼2019), VIP (1989∼2019), WF (1998∼2019), PubMed (1966∼2019), Embase (1980∼2019), Cochrane Library, and Web of Science (1900∼2019) were all retrieved by a computer from their inception to June 02, 2019, replenished by manual retrieval of relevant bibliographies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included if moxibustion was compared to western medicine or negative control (placebo moxibustion or no treatment or UC) for treating KOA. The primary outcomes were the total effect and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC scale). The secondary outcomes include VAS, Symptom score, Lysholm score, and Lequesne score. RCTs were collected, and the quality of evidence was evaluated by using the Jadad scale and Cochrane risk assessment tools. We used RevMan5.3.0 software for meta-analysis. Results. A total of 39 RCTs were included, including 3293 patients. In the assessment of the quality, the evidence differs from low to high based on the Cochrane Bias Evaluation Tools and Jadad scale. Fourteen trials were of high quality, ten were of moderate quality, and 15 were of low quality. Therefore, the quality of the included studies was moderate. In this study, there were 66.67% of the literature, and only 17.95% of the literature correctly reported randomized grouping and allocation of hidden information, respectively. In adverse reactions, only 13 trials included were reported in the study. The main adverse reactions of moxibustion are burns and blisters, whereas the western medicine group was in epigastric discomfort. As for the total effective rate, the meta-analysis of 27 RCTs showed a significant effect of moxibustion VS western medicine (RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.16 to 1.25, I2 = 45%, ); as for the WOMAC scale, the subgroup meta-analysis of 13 trials showed that there was a statistically significant effect of moxibustion VS western medicine (MD = −11.08, 95% CI = −11.72 to −10.44, I2 = 98%, ) and 2 trials on moxibustion VS negative control (MD = −8.38, 95% CI = −12.69 to −4.06, I2 = 0%, ); as for the VAS score, the meta-analysis of 6 trials showed that there was a significant effect of moxibustion VS western medicine (MD = −2.12, 95% CI = −2.30 to −1.93, I2 = 98%, ); as for the symptom score, the meta-analysis of 7 trials showed that there was a significant effect of moxibustion VS western medicine (MD = −0.81, 95% CI = −1.24 to −0.37, I2 = 50%, ); as for the Lysholm score, the meta-analysis of 5 trials showed that there was a significant effect of moxibustion VS western medicine (MD = 7.61, 95% CI = 6.04 to 9.17, I2 = 95%, ); and as for the Lequesne score, the meta-analysis of 3 trials showed that there was a significant effect of moxibustion VS western medicine (MD = 3.29, 95% CI = 2.93 to 3.65, I2 = 99%, ). Conclusion. Moxibustion treatment for KOA is more effective than the positive control (western medicine) or negative control (placebo moxibustion or no treatment or UC), and there were fewer adverse reactions to moxibustion. Due to the universally low quality of the eligible trials, it still needs further large-scale and high-quality randomized controlled trials to verify the effectiveness and safety of moxibustion in the treatment of KOA.

Pain Research and Management
 Journal metrics
Acceptance rate36%
Submission to final decision104 days
Acceptance to publication40 days
CiteScore1.620
Impact Factor1.701
 Submit