The Effect of Dexmedetomidine in Combination with Bupivacaine on Sensory and Motor Block Time and Pain Score in Supraclavicular BlockRead the full article
Pain Research and Management publishes research focusing on laboratory and clinical findings in the field of pain research and the prevention and management of pain.
Chief Editor, Professor Valeriani deals with clinical neurophysiology with a special interest in pain and headaches in children and adults and is currently a neurologist who works at the Bambi Gesu Children’s Hospital in Rome.
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The Comparison of Short-Term Postoperative Pain in Single- versus Multiple-Visit Root Canal Treatment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Study
Postoperative pain after root canal therapy (RoCT) is an unpleasant experience for patients, and it could be affected by different factors. The times of visits could be one of these factors that were evaluated in various studies. However, there is inconsistent evidence on the relation between postoperative pain and the times of visits. Therefore, the current systematic review aimed to summarize the results of these studies and meta-analyze them. For this purpose, a comprehensive search was conducted in four main databases (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus databases) for related English articles from 1978 to August 2020. The quality of studies was evaluated using the Delphi checklist. The heterogeneity of studies was determined by I2 statistic, and publication bias was assessed using the funnel plot and the Begg test. The results were presented by using relative ratio (RR) estimates and standard mean difference (SMD) with its 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random-effects model. Initial searches from mentioned databases identified 1480 papers; of which only 27 of them met the inclusion criteria. In quality assessment, thirteen studies had quality scores of more than 7, two studies had 4 scores, and the rest had 5 scores. Overall, based on the available evidence, the meta-analysis showed that the risk of postoperative pain in single-visit was 1.02 times (CI 95% (0.99, 1.19), I2 = 60.7%, ) higher than that of the multiple-visit treatment. The mean difference of postoperative pain in single-visit was −0.30 (CI 95% (−0.36, −0.25), I2 = 0.94.4, ) compared with the multiple-visit treatment. Based on the results of this meta-analysis, the risk of postoperative pain in single-visit RoCT was higher than that in multiple-visit RoCT with acceptable statistical heterogeneity and moderate quality of the studies.
Blockade of Erythropoietin-Producing Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Receptor B1 in Spinal Dorsal Horn Alleviates Visceral Pain in Rats
Objective. This experiment was designed to determine whether erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma (Eph) receptors were involved in the development of visceral pain. Methods. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups receiving different treatments (n = 16 per group): intracolonic vehicle (control group), intracolonic 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) (TNBS group), and intracolonic TNBS and intrathecal EphB1 receptor blocking reagent (TNBS + EphB2-Fc group). Visceral hyperalgesia was evaluated with quantification of visceral pain threshold induced by colorectal distention. The spinal expressions of EphB1 and ephrinB2 and levels of their phosphorylated forms (p-EphB1 and p-ephrinB2) were assessed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results. The TNBS-treated rats developed significant visceral hyperalgesia. The spinal expressions of EphB1, p-EphB1, ephrinB2, and p-ephrinB2 were significantly increased in the TNBS group compared with the control group, but visceral hyperalgesia and elevation of spinal EphB1 and p-EphB1 expressions were evidently alleviated by intrathecal administration of EphB2-Fc in the TNBS + EphB2-Fc group. The number of EphB1- and p-EphB1-immunopositive cells, the average optical (AO) value of EphB1, and its phosphorylated form in the spinal dorsal horn were significantly increased in the TNBS group than in the control group, but they were obviously reduced by intrathecal administration of EphB2-Fc. There were no significant differences in the number of ephrinB2- and p-ephrinB2-immunopositive cells and the AO value of ephrinB2 and its phosphorylated form between the TNBS and TNBS + EphB2-Fc groups. Conclusion. EphB1 receptors in the spinal dorsal horn play a pivotal role in the development of visceral pain and may be considered as a potential target for the treatment of visceral pain.
One’s Interoception Affects the Representation of Seeing Others’ Pain: A Randomized Controlled qEEG Study
Objective. This research demonstrates that interoceptive attentiveness (IA) can modulate cortical oscillations related to the emotional and cognitive representations of observing pain in others. Methods. Twenty participants were required to observe painful/nonpainful stimuli in an individual versus the interactive condition during the recording of the electroencephalogram. The sample was divided into experimental (EXP) and control (CTR) groups, and the EXP group was explicitly required to direct the attention on its interoceptive correlates while observing the stimuli. Results. Mixed repeated measures, analyses of variance, were applied to each EEG frequency band. Significant findings were obtained mainly for theta and beta bands for the two groups. A hemispheric lateralisation effect was found, with right lateralisation of the theta band for the EXP group when observing painful stimuli and enhanced left activation of theta and beta bands for the CTR group when observing nonpainful stimuli. For both groups, frontal cortical regions were significantly sensitive to social scenarios, while posterior parietal activation was found for stimuli depicting the individual condition. Conclusions. The results suggest that IA might enhance the emotional representation of painful stimuli, highlighting their negative and unpleasant features in the EXP group, while the attention of the CTR group was mainly drawn to nonpainful stimuli in social and individual conditions, with a positive valence. The role of frontal regions in the processing of social stimuli through social cognition, inducing emotional mirroring and requiring deeper analysis of the social context, was underlined. We propose that IA could be trained for promoting emotion regulation and empathic response.
An Interactive Pain Application (MServ) Improves Postoperative Pain Management
Background. Most patients have moderate or severe pain after surgery. Opioids are the cornerstone of treating severe pain after surgery but cause problems when continued long after discharge. We investigated the efficacy of multifunction pain management software (MServ) in improving postoperative pain control and reducing opioid prescription at discharge. Methods. We recruited 234 patients to a prospective cohort study into sequential groups in a nonrandomised manner, one day after major thoracic or urological surgery. Group 1 received standard care (SC, n = 102), group 2 were given a multifunctional device that fed back to the nursing staff alone (DN, n = 66), and group 3 were given the same device that fed back to both the nursing staff and the acute pain team (DNPT, n = 66). Patient-reported pain scores at 24 and 48 hours and patient-reported time in severe pain, medications, and satisfaction were recorded on trial discharge. Findings. Odds of having poor pain control (>1 on 0–4 pain scale) were calculated between standard care (SC) and device groups (DN and DNPT). Patients with a device were significantly less likely to have poor pain control at 24 hours (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.25, 0.81) and to report time in severe pain at 48 hours (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.47–0.80). Patients with a device were three times less likely to be prescribed strong opioids on discharge (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.95). Interpretation. Using an mHealth device designed for pain management, rather than standard care, reduced the incidence of poor pain control in the postoperative period and reduced opioid prescription on discharge from hospital.
Current Evidence Does Support the Use of KT to Treat Chronic Knee Pain in Short Term: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Objective. To demonstrate whether KT is better than placebo taping, nonelastic taping, or no taping in reducing pain. Methods. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were systematically searched up to 20 October 2020 for randomized controlled studies that used KT to treat chronic knee pain according to PRISMA guidelines. We extracted the mean differences and SD in pretreatment and posttreatment for selected outcomes measured in the experimental and control groups for subsequent meta-analyses. Results. In total, 8 studies involving 416 participants fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Our results indicated that KT is better than other tapings (placebo taping or nonelastic taping) in the early four weeks. The mean difference was −1.44 (95% CI: −2.04–−0.84, I2 = 49%, ). Treatment methods which were performed for more than six weeks (0.16 (95% CI: −0.35–0.68, I2 = 0%, )) show no significant difference in reducing pain. In studies in which visual analogue scale was measured, a positive effect was observed for KT combined with exercise program training (−3.27 (95% CI: −3.69–2.85, I2 = 0%, )). Conclusion. KT exhibited significant but temporary pain reduction.
Effectiveness of Intravenous Immunoglobulin for Management of Pain in Patients with Postpolio Syndrome
Objective. Many patients with postpolio syndrome (PPS) experience pain. In this study, we aimed to review previous studies to investigate the effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for managing pain in patients with PPS. We performed a narrative review. Methods. In PubMed, we searched for the keywords ((Immunoglobulin OR IVIG) AND (poliomyelitis OR poliomyelitis syndrome)). We included articles in which IVIG was infused in patients with PPS and pain severity was measured before and after treatment. Results. In the results, five articles (4 randomized controlled trials and 1 prospective observational study) were included in this review. Four of the studies reported that IVIG had a positive pain-reducing effect in patients with PPS. In addition, 4 studies evaluated the outcomes related to muscle strength and function. Of these studies, 3 showed some improvement in measurements for muscle strength and function. Conclusion. In conclusion, IVIG might be one of the beneficial options for managing pain in PPS. Pain reduction might be responsible for the improvement of muscle strength or function. To confirm the benefits of IVIG in reducing pain, more high-quality studies are required.