Pain Research and Management

Pain Research and Management / 2003 / Article

Original Article | Open Access

Volume 8 |Article ID 592846 |

Alan Russell, C Peter Watson, Alexander J Clark, William Arkinstall, Dwight Moulin, Helen Hays, John Eisenhoffer, Patricia Quigley, Zoltan Harsanyi, Andrew Darke, "Evaluation of Dosing Guidelines for Use of Controlled-Release Codeine in Chronic Noncancer Plan", Pain Research and Management, vol. 8, Article ID 592846, 6 pages, 2003.

Evaluation of Dosing Guidelines for Use of Controlled-Release Codeine in Chronic Noncancer Plan


OBJECTIVE: The clinical utility of guidelines for conversion of patients from a combination analgesic preparation of acetaminophen 300 mg plus codeine 30 mg every 4 h to 6h as needed to scheduled controlled-release (CR) codeine every 12 h was evaluated.METHODS: Adult patients with chronic noncancer pain underwent a two-week evaluation on acetaminophen plus codeine, followed by eight weeks of treatment with CR codeine. Patients taking four to six tablets of acetaminophen plus codeine per day were transferred to 50 mg CR codeine every 12 h; those on seven to nine tablets were transferred to 100 mg every 12 h; those on 10 to 12 tablets were transferred to 150 mg every 12 h; and those on greater than 12 tablets were transferred to 200 mg every 12 h. Subsequent dose adjustments were permitted. Acetaminophen (325 mg) was available for rescue. Pain intensity (five-point categorical and 100 mm visual analog scale), pain related disability, adverse events and acceptability were assessed.RESULTS: Of the 140 patients enrolled, 95 completed eight weeks of treatment with CR codeine. During month 1 and month 2, the mean CR codeine daily doses were 295.7±119.1 mg and 390.3±163.4 mg, respectively. Pain scores during both CR codeine month 1 and 2 were significantly lower than on acetaminophen plus codeine (53.6±20.9 mm and 49.7±23.7 mm versus 59.6±17.5 mm; P=0.0003, P=0.0001, respectively). CR codeine treatment was rated as moderately or highly acceptable by 82% of patients compared with 50% for acetaminophen plus codeine (P=0.001). Only seven patients (5.9%) discontinued CR codeine treatment because of adverse events.CONCLUSION: The results confirm the safety, efficacy and patient acceptability of the initial conversion and maintenance dosing recommendations for CR codeine from a combination opioid/nonopioid analgesic.

Copyright © 2003 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

More related articles

 PDF Download Citation Citation
 Order printed copiesOrder

Related articles

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.