Prevalence and Correlates of Pain in the Canadian National Palliative Care Survey
BACKGROUND: Pain is a common problem for people with cancer who are nearing the ends of their lives.OBJECTIVE: In the present multicentre Canadian study of palliative cancer care, the prevalence of pain, its perceived severity and its correlates across a range of physical, social, psychological, and existential symptoms and concerns were examined.METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 381 patients. In addition to inquiring about pain, the interview also assessed 21 other symptoms and concerns, and collected information about demographic characteristics, functional status and medication use.RESULTS: Pain of any intensity was reported by 268 (70.3%) participants, although for 139 (36.5%), the severity was rated as minimal or mild. For 129 (33.9%) individuals, pain was reported as moderate to extreme, and considered by the respondents to be an important ongoing problem. Patients who reported moderate to extreme pain were younger than other participants, but had lower functional status and a shorter median survival duration. They were more likely than other participants to be treated with opioid medications (P<0.001) and, less reliably, with benzodiazepines (P=0.079). Compared with participants with no, minimal or mild pain, those with moderate to extreme pain had a higher prevalence of distressing problems on 11 of 21 other symptoms and concerns. The strongest correlations were with general malaise (rho = 0.44), suffering (rho = 0.40), nausea (rho = 0.34), weakness (rho = 0.31), drowsiness (rho = 0.29) and anxiety (rho = 0.29).CONCLUSIONS: Pain continues to be a difficult problem for many patients who are receiving palliative cancer care, particularly younger individuals who are nearing death.