OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of temperament and trait anxiety on memory for pain.METHODS: Three dimensions of temperament, as well as trait anxiety, were assessed in 36 children (five to 12 years of age) undergoing dental procedures; after the procedure, the children provided pain ratings. Following a six- to eight-week delay, the children reported how much pain they remembered.RESULTS: Most children (85%) accurately recalled their pain. Temperament had no significant effect, but trait-anxious children showed a greater likelihood of recalling more pain than they initially reported, suggesting that they may negatively distort recollections of painful experiences.CONCLUSIONS: When treating children, in particular trait-anxious children, clinicians should consider what children remember as part of pain management intervention.