Original Article | Open Access
Alison M Twycross, Jill MacLaren Chorney, Patrick J McGrath, G Allen Finley, Darlene M Boliver, Katherine A Mifflin, "A Delphi Study to Identify Indicators of Poorly Managed Pain for Pediatric Postoperative and Procedural Pain", Pain Research and Management, vol. 18, Article ID 570478, 7 pages, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/570478
A Delphi Study to Identify Indicators of Poorly Managed Pain for Pediatric Postoperative and Procedural Pain
BACKGROUND: Adverse health care events are injuries occurring as a result of patient care. Significant acute pain is often caused by medical and surgical procedures in children, and it has been argued that undermanaged pain should be considered to be an adverse event. Indicators are often used to identify other potential adverse events. There are currently no validated indicators for undertreated pediatric pain.OBJECTIVES: To develop a preliminary list of indicators of undermanaged pain in hospitalized pediatric patients.METHODS: The Delphi technique was used to survey experts in pediatric pain management and quality improvement. The first round used an electronic questionnaire to ask: “In your opinion, what indicators would signify that acute pain in a child has not been adequately controlled?” Responses were grouped together in semantically similar themes, providing a list of possible adverse event indicators. Using this list, an electronic questionnaire was developed for round 2 asking respondents to indicate the importance of each potential indicator.RESULTS: All but one indicator achieved a level of consensus ≥70%. Separate indicators emerged for postoperative and procedural pain. An additional distinction was made between indicators that could be identified by chart review and those requiring observation of practice and assessment from the child or parent.DISCUSSION: The adverse care indicators developed in the present study require further refinement. There is a need to test their clinical usability and to determine whether these indicators actually identify undermanaged pain in clinical practice. The present study is an important first step in identifying undermanaged pain in hospital and treating it as an adverse event.CONCLUSION: The adverse care indicators developed in the present study are the first step in conceptualizing mismanaged pain as an adverse event.
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