Pain Research and Management

Pain Research and Management / 2014 / Article

Original Article | Open Access

Volume 19 |Article ID 346105 |

Patricia Paiva-Lima, YS Bakhle, Janetti N Francischi, "Dual Effects of Rho-Kinase Inhibitors on a Rat Model of Inflammatory Pain", Pain Research and Management, vol. 19, Article ID 346105, 7 pages, 2014.

Dual Effects of Rho-Kinase Inhibitors on a Rat Model of Inflammatory Pain


BACKGROUND: Rho-kinases (ROCKs), a family of small GTP-dependent enzymes, are involved in a range of pain models, and their inhibition typically leads to antinociceptive effects.OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of inhibiting ROCKs using two known inhibitors, Y27632 and HA1077 (fasudil), administered locally, on nociception and paw edema in rats.METHODS: A range of doses of Y27632 or HA1077 (2.5 μg to 1000 μg) were injected locally into rat paws alone or in combination with carrageenan, a known proinflammatory stimulus. Nociceptive responses to mechanical stimuli and increased paw volume, reflecting edema formation, were measured at 2 h and 3 h, using a Randall-Selitto apparatus and a hydroplethysmometer, respectively.RESULTS: Animals treated with either ROCK inhibitor showed biphasic nociceptive effects, with lower doses being associated with pronociceptive, and higher doses with antinociceptive responses. In contrast, a monophasic dose-dependent increase in edema was observed in the same animals. Local injection of 8-bromo-cyclic (c)GMP, an activator of the nitric oxide/cGMP/protein kinase G pathway, also produced biphasic effects on nociceptive responses in rat paws; however, low doses were antinociceptive and high doses were pronociceptive. Local administration of cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of actin polymerization and a downstream mediator of ROCK activity, reversed the antinociceptive effect of Y27632.CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study suggest that ROCKs participate in the local mechanisms associated with nociception/antinociception and inflammation, with a possible involvement of the nitric oxide/cGMP/protein kinase G pathway. Also, drug effects following local administration may differ markedly from the effects following systemic administration. Finally, separate treatment of pain and edema may be needed to maximize clinical benefit in inflammatory pain.

Copyright © 2014 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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