Table 2: Unadjusted and adjusted analysis of association between pain intensity/pain interference and ≥3 visits to the family doctor for pain in the past 12 months.

<3 visits≥3 visitsPain intensity model OR (95% CI)Pain interference model OR (95% CI)
(%) (%)UnadjustedAdjusted (full)Adjusted (reduced)UnadjustedAdjusted (full)Adjusted (reduced)

Demographic covariates
Age pain interaction term1.07 (1.02–1.11)1.09 (1.04–1.14)1.08 (1.03–1.13)1.08 (1.04–1.12)1.10 (1.05–1.15)1.10 (1.05–1.14)
Marital status
 Single/divorced/widowed133 (80.1)33 (19.9)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
 Married320 (76.2)100 (23.8)1.26 (0.81–1.96)1.58 (0.93–2.67)1.35 (0.82–2.22)1.26 (0.81–1.96)1.59 (0.94–2.70)1.38 (0.84–2.27)
Employment status
 Not employed/retired/other164 (80.4)40 (19.6)1.01.0NS1.01.0NS
 Employed full time or part time287 (75.3)94 (24.7)1.34 (0.89–2.04)1.26 (0.75–2.12)1.34 (0.89–2.04)1.30 (0.77–2.18)
Education
 High school diploma or less146 (78.5)40 (21.5)1.01.0NS1.01.0NS
 More than high school307 (76.8)93 (23.3)1.11 (0.73–1.68)1.08 (0.65–1.80)1.11 (0.73–1.68)1.01 (0.61–1.67)

Clinical covariates
BMI
 ≥30196 (77.2)58 (22.8)1.01.0NS1.01.0NS
 <30252 (77.1)75 (22.9)1.01 (0.68–1.49)1.10 (0.69–1.74)1.01 (0.68–1.49)1.19 (0.75–1.88)
Current smoker
 No369 (79.5)95 (20.5)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
 Yes84 (68.9)38 (31.1)1.76 (1.13–2.74)1.41 (0.85–2.37)1.41 (0.86–2.32)1.76 (1.13–2.74)1.50 (0.90–2.50)1.46 (0.89–2.40)
Previous abdominal surgery
 No154 (86.0)25 (14.0)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
 Yes296 (73.6)106 (26.4)2.21 (1.37–3.56)2.37 (1.37–4.09)2.16 (1.28–3.65)2.21 (1.37–3.56)2.45 (1.41–4.24)2.31 (1.37–3.91)

Situational factors
Adjusted days waited
 ≤8 weeks272 (77.5)79 (22.5)1.01.0NS1.01.0NS
 >8 weeks180 (76.9)54 (23.1)1.03 (0.70–1.53)0.75 (0.47–1.22)1.03 (0.70–1.53)0.81 (0.50–1.30)

Psychological factors
Anxiety and/or depression
 No287 (81.8)64 (18.2)1.01.0NS1.01.0NS
 Yes161 (70.0)69 (30.0)1.92 (1.30–2.84)1.10 (0.69–1.75)1.92 (1.30–2.84)1.01 (0.63–1.63)

Physiological factors, gynaecological
Current menstruation status
 Not stopped or unsure258 (74.8)87 (25.2)1.01.0NS1.01.0NS
 Stopped surgically or naturally195 (80.6)47 (19.4)0.71 (0.48–1.07)1.35 (0.73–2.48)0.71 (0.48–1.07)1.49 (0.81–2.73)
Taking hormone replacement therapy
 No431 (77.8)123 (22.2)1.01.0NS1.01.0NS
 Yes22 (66.7)11 (33.3)1.75 (0.83–3.71)1.75 (0.73–4.21)1.75 (0.83–3.71)1.76 (0.73–4.24)
Birth control pills in the past month
 No415 (77.9)118 (22.1)1.01.0NS1.01.0NS
 Yes33 (71.7)13 (28.3)1.39 (0.71–2.72)1.13 (0.52–2.48)1.39 (0.71–2.72)1.22 (0.55–2.67)
Preoperative malignancy status
 Possibly/definitely malignant198 (83.2)40 (16.8)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
 Not malignant254 (73.2)93 (26.8)1.81 (1.20–2.74)1.42 (0.83–2.43)1.44 (0.89–2.33)1.81 (1.20–2.74)1.44 (0.85–2.45)1.45 (0.90–2.34)

Note: main effects for the interaction term age pain were included in the full and reduced adjusted models; age is as a continuous variable and pain scales (intensity and interference) were categorized at ≤3 or >3.
The pain intensity model included the age pain interference interaction term. The pain interference model included the age pain intensity interaction.
BPI: Brief Pain Inventory, NA: not applicable, and NS: not selected for final model.