Table 3: Unadjusted and adjusted analysis of association between pain intensity/pain interference and ≥3 visits to a specialist for pain in the past 12 months.

<3 visits≥3 visitsPain intensity model OR (95% CI)Pain interference model OR (95% CI)
(%) (%)UnadjustedAdjusted (full)Adjusted (reduced)UnadjustedAdjusted (full)

Physical symptoms
Pain intensity scale (BPI)
 ≤3/10355 (91.0)35 (9.0)1.01.01.0NANANA
 >3/10139 (70.9)57 (29.1)4.16 (2.61–6.62)3.34 (2.00–5.56)3.53 (2.18–5.74)NANANA
Pain interference scale (BPI)
 ≤3/10354 (90.1)39 (9.9)NANANA1.01.01.0
 >3/10140 (72.5)53 (27.5)NANANA3.44 (2.17–5.43)2.88 (1.69–4.91)2.90 (1.79–4.69)

Demographic covariates
Age
 Years (mean (SD))49.2 (11.4)44.0 (9.6)0.96 (0.94–0.98)0.96 (0.93–1.00)0.97 (0.95–0.99)0.96 (0.94–0.98)0.96 (0.93–0.99)0.97 (0.95–1.00)
Marital status
 Single/divorced/widowed144 (86.2)23 (13.8)1.01.0NS1.01.0NS
 Married352 (83.8)68 (16.2)1.21 (0.73–2.02)1.40 (0.79–2.49)1.21 (0.73–2.02)1.37 (0.78–2.43)
Employment status
 Not employed/retired/other175 (85.8)29 (14.2)1.01.0NS1.01.0NS
 Employed full or part time319 (83.5)63 (16.5)1.19 (0.74–1.92)1.03 (0.59–1.80)1.19 (0.74–1.92)1.03 (0.59–1.80)
Education
 High school diploma or less156 (83.9)30 (16.1)1.01.0NS1.01.0NS
 More than high school339 (84.5)62 (15.5)0.95 (0.59–1.53)0.91 (0.52–1.58)0.95 (0.59–1.53)0.89 (0.51–1.53)

Clinical covariates
BMI
 ≥30213 (83.9)41 (16.1)1.01.0NS1.01.0NS
 <30278 (84.8)50 (15.2)0.93 (0.60–1.47)0.97 (0.59–1.61)0.93 (0.60–1.47)1.00 (0.61–1.66)
Current smoker
 No402 (86.6)62 (13.4)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
 Yes94 (76.4)29 (23.6)2.00 (1.22–3.28)1.63 (0.94–2.83)1.70 (0.99–2.90)2.00 (1.22–3.28)1.72 (1.00–2.98)1.77 (1.04–3.00)
Previous abdominal surgery
 No161 (89.9)18 (10.1)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
 Yes332 (82.4)71 (17.6)1.91 (1.10–3.32)1.73 (0.94–3.15)1.69 (0.95–3.00)1.91 (1.10–3.32)1.74 (0.95–3.17)1.72 (0.97–3.04)

Situational factors
Adjusted days waited
 ≤8 weeks300 (85.2)52 (14.8)1.01.0NS1.01.0NS
 >8 weeks194 (82.9)40 (17.1)1.19 (0.76–1.87)0.91 (0.54–1.54)1.19 (0.76–1.87)0.96 (0.57–1.62)

Psychological factors
Anxiety and/or depression
 No309 (87.8)43 (12.2)1.01.0NS1.01.0NS
 Yes181 (78.7)49 (21.3)1.95 (1.24–3.05)1.21 (0.73–2.02)1.95 (1.24–3.05)1.13 (0.67–1.91)

Physiological factors, gynaecological
Current menstruation status
 Not stopped or unsure284 (82.1)62 (17.9)1.01.0NS1.01.0NS
 Stopped surgically or naturally212 (87.6)30 (12.4)0.65 (0.40–1.04)1.19 (0.61–2.32)0.65 (0.40–1.04)1.29 (0.66–2.52)
Taking hormone replacement therapy
 No472 (85.0)83 (15.0)1.01.0NS1.01.0NS
 Yes24 (72.7)9 (27.3)2.13 (0.96–4.75)2.14 (0.88–5.19)2.13 (0.96–4.75)2.12 (0.88–5.12)
Birth control pills in the past month
 No450 (84.3)84 (15.7)1.01.0NS1.01.0NS
 Yes38 (82.6)8 (17.4)1.13 (0.51–2.50)0.90 (0.36–2.24)1.13 (0.51–2.50)0.98 (0.39–2.44)
Preoperative malignancy status
 Possibly/definitely malignant214 (89.5)25 (10.5)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
 Not malignant280 (80.7)67 (19.3)2.05 (1.25–3.35)1.56 (0.90–2.68)1.56 (0.97–2.82)2.05 (1.25–3.35)1.60 (0.89–2.88)1.61 (0.94–2.76)

BPI: Brief Pain Inventory, NA: not applicable, and NS: not selected for final model.