Pain Research and Management / 2016 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

The Cognitive Functions in Adults with Chronic Pain: A Comparative Study

Table 2

Demographic and individual variables of the participants.

Demographic variables of participantsGroup 1
chronic pain] 
Group 2
pain-free] 
value
cumulative]

Age [years]
 Mean39.935.00.086
 SD12.110.6
Gender [, %]
 Male7 [17.5]7 [24.0]0.506
 Female33 [82.5]22 [76.0]
Marital status [, %]
 Singled9 [22.5]8 [27.6]0.348
 Married28 [70.0]19 [65.5]
 Divorced/widow3 [7.5]2 [6.8]
Years of education [, %]
 High school8 [20.0]7 [24.1]0.900
 Some college13 [32.5]7 [24.1]
 Bachelor or above19 [47.5]15 [51.8]
Income [, %]
 Low19 [47.5]12 [41.4]0.691
 Moderate17 [42.5]14 [48.3]
 High4 [10.0]3 [10.3]
Occupation [, %]
 House wife5 [12.5]2 [6.9]0.053
 Retired [medical]5 [12.5]0 [0.0]
 Student3 [7.5]5 [17.2]
 Teacher5 [12.5]4 [13.8]
 Office work17 [42.5]16 [55.2]
 Technician5 [12.5]2 [6.9]
Psychosocial variables [Mean ± SD]
 Depression4.05 ± 3.23.38 ± 2.60.365
 Anxiety4.88 ± 2.83.59 ± 2.40.051
 Stress5.0 ± 3.23.4 ± 2.40.032
 Quality of life7.28 ± 2.27.5 ± 1.70.627
Duration of pain [, %]
 Less than 5 years22 [55.0]
 More than 5 years18 [45.0]
Type of pain [, %]
 Musculoskeletal [one joint]4 [10.0]
 Musculoskeletal [multiple joints]13 [32.5]
 Musculoskeletal [back only]8 [20.0]
 Internal [visceral]5 [12.5]
 Headache6 [15.0]
 More than one type4 [10.0]
Pain medication, nonopioid [, %]
 Yes18 [45.0]
 No22 [55.0]

Note: SD: standard deviation; .

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly and safely as possible. Any author submitting a COVID-19 paper should notify us at help@hindawi.com to ensure their research is fast-tracked and made available on a preprint server as soon as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted articles related to COVID-19.