Pain Research and Management / 2017 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Burning Mouth Syndrome: Aetiopathogenesis and Principles of Management

Table 1

Some systemic and local causes of a burning sensation in the mouth, which, therefore, by definition is not BMS [4, 8, 12, 13, 18, 26].

(1) Oral mucosal conditions
 (i) Erythema/erosion of whatever cause
 (ii) Atrophic tongue
 (iii) Candidosis
 (iv) Geographic tongue
 (v) Lichen planus
 (vi) Pemphigoid, pemphigus
(2) Parafunctional habits
 (i) Cheek sucking
 (ii) Tongue thrusting
(3) Trauma: mechanical, chemical, thermal
(4) Xerostomia and altered salivary quality
 (i) Radiotherapy
 (ii) Chemotherapy
 (iii) Other drugs
 (iv) Sjögren’s syndrome
(5) Systemic factors
 (i) Diabetes
 (ii) Decreased levels of vitamins B1, B2, B12, folate, iron, zinc
 (iii) Abnormal thyroid function
 (iv) Allergic reaction to food or dental materials
 (v) Lichenoid tissue reactions
 (vi) Autoimmune conditions
 (vii) Hormonal disturbances
 (viii) Parkinson disease
(6) Drugs
 (i) Paroxetine
 (ii) Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
(7) Local nerve damage
 (i) Chemotherapy-associated neuropathy
 (ii) Local physical irritation
(8) Various peripheral or central neuropathies