Efficacy and Safety of Transdermal Buprenorphine versus Oral Tramadol/Acetaminophen in Patients with Persistent Postoperative Pain after Spinal Surgery
Computation of EQ-5D index score.
: Level 1: I have no problems in walking around; Level 2: I have some problems in walking around; Level 3: I am confined to bed. Self-care: Level 1: I have no problems with self-care; Level 2: I have some problems taking a bath/shower, or dressing myself; Level 3: I am unable to take a bath/shower, or dress myself. Usual activities: Level 1: I have no problems with performing my usual activities; Level 2: I have some problems with performing my usual activities; Level 3: I am unable to perform my usual activities. Pain/discomfort: Level 1: I have no pain or discomfort; Level 2: I have moderate pain or discomfort; Level 3: I have extreme pain or discomfort. Anxiety/depression: Level 1: I am not anxious or depressed; Level 2: I am moderately anxious or depressed; Level 3: I am extremely anxious or depressed. The EQ-5D index (total score) was computed as follows: 1 − 0.081 − (score according to item and level) − 0.269 (if there was at least one Level 3 item).
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