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Pain Research and Management
Volume 2017, Article ID 2164825, 10 pages
Research Article

Prevalence of Painful Temporomandibular Disorders and Correlation to Lifestyle Factors among Adolescents in Norway

1Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Clinical Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
2Specialist Oral Health Centre for Western Norway, Stavanger, Norway

Correspondence should be addressed to Annika Rosén; on.biu@nesor.akinna

Received 12 January 2017; Revised 4 April 2017; Accepted 7 May 2017; Published 30 May 2017

Academic Editor: Vahid Rakhshan

Copyright © 2017 Vegard Østensjø et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Aim. To estimate the prevalence of painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD-P) among adolescents and to investigate correlations with health, environment, and lifestyle factors. Methods. For this cross-sectional case-control study, 562 patients were consecutively recruited at their yearly revision control from four dental clinics in Rogaland County, Norway. Patients completed a questionnaire on general health, socioeconomics, demographics, and lifestyle factors. Responses to two screening questions identified patients with TMD-P, who then underwent clinical examination to verify the TMD diagnosis. Pain intensity was assessed on a visual analogue scale. Patients without TMD-P constituted the control group and were not clinically examined. Results. 7% experienced TMD-P. The female-to-male ratio is 3:1; median age is 17 years. Patients at urban clinics had higher prevalence compared with those at rural clinics. TMD-P patients had headache and severe menstrual pain compared to controls. They were more likely to live with divorced/single parents and less likely to have regular physical activity. Myalgia was present in 21 patients with TMD-P, arthralgia in nine, and myalgia and arthralgia in nine. Females had higher pain intensity than males. Conclusions. A low prevalence of TMD-P was shown but was comparable to other studies. Sex, health, lifestyle, and environment factors were associated with TMD-P.